- Military assistance — Armed conflict, international — Armed conflict, non-international — Belligerence — Belligerents — Geneva Conventions 1949 — Armed forces
This chapter discusses the ongoing armed conflicts in Ukraine where the government is fighting pro-Russian separatist armed groups which proclaimed ‘the Donetsk People's Republic’ and the ‘Luhansk People's Republic’. It presents key casualty data provided by the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN OHCHR). All parties to the conflict are bound by customary international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law, as Ukraine is a state party to the four 1949 Geneva Conventions and to other various international treaties. Tensions between government forces and pro-Russian groups first emerged in 2013 after Russia halted imports from Ukraine, claiming that its products fell below safety standards. Russia's move, however, was seen as an act of retaliation for Ukraine's efforts to integrate further with the EU. The separatist groups, with the support of Russia, then formed sovereign states independent of Ukraine, which further increased hostilities. As of 30 November 2014, the UN OHCHR has documented 14,428 casualties.