- Armed conflict, international — Armed conflict, non-international — Belligerence — Belligerents — Weapons — Humanitarian intervention — Armed forces
This chapter describes the Russian Federation's ongoing military occupation of Moldova in 2014. Both parties to the conflict were bound by customary and conventional international humanitarian law and human rights law, including customary international humanitarian law (IHL). The conflict traces its roots to Moldova's declaration of independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union. However, before the declaration, the region of Transdniestria declared its own independence and formed the Transdniestrian Moldovan Republic. The breakaway state was against the idea of a possible reunification with Romania, and a language law proclaiming Moldovan as the official language. This dispute led to the 1990–1992 Transnistria War where Russia supported Transdniestria. Recent tensions reached their peak in 4 August of 2014 when Moscow accused Moldova and Ukraine of attempting to block Russia's access to its troops in Transdniestria. The following day, the Moldovan Government called on Russia to withdraw its troops and weapons from the region.