- Diplomatic missions — Diplomatic relations — Sovereignty — Statehood, legitimacy — Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties — Rule of law — Territoriality — Governments
This chapter examines the functions of diplomatic missions and the performance of consular functions by diplomatic missions. Under long established principles of international law now codified in Article 2 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, the establishment of diplomatic relations between States and the establishment of permanent diplomatic missions take place by mutual consent. The right to send and receive diplomatic agents flows from recognition as a sovereign State and was formerly known as the right of legation (ius legationis). Furthermore, it is in modern practice highly exceptional for two States to recognize each other without formally establishing diplomatic relations—and such a situation usually indicates extreme tension or coolness between them. By contrast, it is now common for two States to establish or to maintain diplomatic relations without having permanent missions in each other’s territory.