- Since World War II — Sovereignty — Peace treaties — Governments — International peace and security
This chapter discusses international conflict resolution. Conflict-related issues occupy a spectrum, ranging from its absence (peace); through emerging conflict, actual conflict or war, and ending hostilities; to the challenge of building stable, peaceful societies and States. Inter-State war has diminished since 1945, partly because of the system of international peace preservation put in place, primarily through the United Nations, and perhaps because such conflict is less likely with more democratically elected governments of States participating in the international trade and financial system. But conflict within States remains potent, with armed non-state actors being a frequent characteristic. Thus this chapter presents an overview of conflict prevention and management, covering topics such as negotiations, peacebuilding, mediation, and so on.