Part III Other Relevant International Regimes and Issues, 15 Transnational Organised Crime and Cultural Property
Edited By: Pierre Hauck, Sven Peterke
- Organized crime — Cultural property / heritage — Armed conflict
Global demand for art and historical artefacts makes them attractive for international crime. A diverse array of offences includes robbery/theft, illicit excavation, illicit import and export, forgery, fraud, and dealing in stolen goods. Cultural objects are also at risk of destruction and pillage in armed conflicts, offences treated as war crimes. The international community has long endeavoured to develop instruments to improve protection of cultural property. These efforts include, for armed conflicts, the Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, the 1954 Hague Convention and the Rome Statute and, for illegal trade, the 1970 UNESCO Convention and the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention. Despite all these efforts, there is still room for improvement, and in particular to strengthen international cooperation among law enforcement agencies and authorities for protecting cultural property. International organisations like Interpol and UNESCO play a key role in this regard as driving forces and intermediaries.