- ECT (Energy Charter Treaty) — Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Chapter 1 illustrates the importance of means of transportation in the development of international law, and the modern relevance of transit of energy via pipelines in this respect. The chapter sets the framework and method used in the study. Key concepts (transit, energy, and pipelines) and the scope of application of the treaties (ratione loci and ratione materiae) examined in the study are explained. It explains the rules of treaty interpretation that are used in the study for determining the scope and content of obligations regarding transit of energy, for identifying the nature of these obligations with a view to establishing standing to invoke international responsibility in case of their breach, and for determining the relationship between treaty rules and customary international law. It focuses on the role of subsequent agreements and practice, which is extensively used in this study as a means of treaty interpretation. The elements of an internationally wrongful act are then discussed. Emphasis is placed on attribution of conduct of private entities, and on the dual function of countermeasures under the law of international responsibility.
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