- Law of the sea — UNCLOS (UN Convention on the Law of the Sea) — Exclusive economic zone
The growing realization of the enormous resources and economic potential of the seas along with concerns over the impact of long-distance fishing fleets on coastal fish stocks and the threats posed by pollution from ships to coastal communities and ocean life have caused a major shift towards more national authority over maritime areas, leading to a diminution of the extent of the high seas and an attenuation of its freedoms. This development has directly affected the landlocked States as well as other States in a less favourable geographical position with respect to the seas and their resources. This chapter analyzes how landlocked and geographically disadvantaged States sought to safeguard their rights and interests in connection with the emergence of a new law of the sea; the rights granted to them under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOSC); how these rights have been realized in practice; and the role of these States in the further development of the law of the sea.
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