6 Marine Environmental Threats from Shipping
From: Saving the Oceans Through Law: The International Legal Framework for the Protection of the Marine Environment
- Coastal states — Ports — Flag state — Territorial sea — Specific treaties
The prevention of pollution from ships as a topic is largely addressed at the global level through the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Chapter 6 analyses the main treaties in this field, including the International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL Convention), the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS Convention), the International Convention on Ballast Water Management, and the International Convention on Anti-Fouling Substances. The analysis addresses both the types of rules employed in the IMO treaties and the processes through which the rules are amended and updated over time. The standards prescribed by these treaties are not only relevant to their Parties but also have a wider influence through the operation of rules of reference contained in United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). The chapter also takes into account the emergence of broader concerns relating to the impact of shipping on marine biodiversity, such as noise pollution and ship strikes and the challenges in the implementation and enforcement of international shipping standards.