4 Land-Based Sources of Marine Pollution
From: Saving the Oceans Through Law: The International Legal Framework for the Protection of the Marine Environment
- Sustainable development — Pollution — UNCLOS (UN Convention on the Law of the Sea)
Chapter 4 addresses the major international instruments that have been adopted to address land-based sources of marine pollution. This category includes industrial, agricultural, and urban discharges, which are amongst the most serious causes of marine environmental degradation, as well as some of the most difficult to regulate. The chapter begins by reviewing the relevant provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and how they apply to land-based activities. It then explores the range of other instruments that have been negotiated on the topic. At the global level, the analysis covers the Global Programme of Action, the POPs Convention, and the Mercury Convention. The most detailed regulations are seen at the regional level, and, therefore, the chapter explains the manner in which regional institutions have developed and overseen a variety of rules and standards to address this threat. The interaction of these different levels is also taken into account, using a case study of marine litter.