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Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (2nd Edition): A Commentary on the TRIPS Agreement

Carlos Maria Correa

Previous Edition (1 ed.)


The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is the most comprehensive and influential international treaty on intellectual property rights. It brings intellectual property rules into the framework of the World Trade Organization, obliging all WTO Member States to meet minimum standards of intellectual property protection and enforcement. This has required massive changes in some national laws, particularly in developing countries. This book provides an in-depth analysis of the principles and of the substantive and enforcement provisions of the TRIPS Agreement. It discusses the legal context in which the Agreement was negotiated, the objectives of their proponents and the nature of the obligations it created for the members of the World Trade Organization. In particular, it examines the minimum standards that must be implemented with regard to patents, trademarks, industrial designs, geographical indications, copyright and related rights, integrated circuits, trade-secrets and test data for pharmaceutical and agrochemical products. The book elaborates on the interpretation of provisions contained in said Agreement, in the light of the customary principles for the interpretation of international law. The analysis—which is supported by a review of the relevant GATT and WTO jurisprudence—identifies the policy space left to such members to implement their obligations in accordance with their own legal systems and public policy objectives, including in respect of complex issues such as patentability criteria, compulsory licenses, exceptions and limitations to copyright, border measures, injunctive relief and the protection of test data under the discipline of unfair competition.

Bibliographic Information

Carlos Maria Correa, author

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