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Human Rights and World Public Order - The Basic Policies of an International Law of Human Dignity, 2nd Edition by McDougal, Myres S; Lasswell, Harold D; Chen, Lung-chu

Subject Index

From: Human Rights and World Public Order: The Basic Policies of an International Law of Human Dignity (2nd Edition)

Myres S. McDougal, Harold D. Lasswell, Lung-chu Chen

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From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved. Subscriber: null; date: 23 October 2019

(p. 993) Subject Index

Accommodation of interests, 119, 414–22, 799–815
Actio popularis, 358
Act of State doctrine, 216
Act of Toleration, 1689, 664n., 666
Ad Hoc Conciliation Commission, 294–96
Adjudicative arenas, 189–90, 291
Affection, 85;
demands, 12–13;
claims, 156–57;
policy preferences, 396–97
—deprivations, 34–35;
in slavery, 475–76;
in caste systems, 509–10;
in apartheid, 528, 549;
because of race, 576–77;
because of sex, 621–22;
because of religious belief, 661;
because of nonconforming opinion, 696–97;
because of language, 719;
because of alienage, 742
Afghanistan, 512n.
Africa, 169, 317, 480–81, 487, 671n. See also individual countries
African-Asian, 315n., 473n., 534, 551
Aged, discrimination against: deprivations, 779–82;
community policies, 782–86
—remedies: United Nations actions, 786–89;
national actions, 789–94;
future of, 795
Age Discrimination Employment Act, 1967, 789–90
Aggregate interest, in harmonization of public and civic order, 799–801, 857–60. See also Interests, common
—comprehensive public order, claims relating to: factual background, 802–03;
community policies, 804–05;
and accommodation, 805–06, 810–14;
decision trends, 805–15;
Universal Declaration, 806–08;
International Covenants, 808;
European Convention, 809;
American Convention, 809–10;
principles for application, missing, 815. See also Public order
—civic order, claims relating to: factual background, 815–23;
and privacy, 816, 820–23, 840–44;
threats to, 817–23;
freedoms of, 817;
community policies, 823–29;
constitutive process, 829–31;
decision trends, 829–56;
prescription code, 831;
and public order decisions, 831–32;
United Nations developments, 832–40;
national decisions, 844–58. See also Civic order
Agreement on Trade Relations between the United States of America and the Socialist Republic of Romania, 756n.
Alabama Arbitration, 201
Albania, 582, 672, 723n.;
Nationality Act, 1946, 888n. 905n.;
Treaty on Nationality with U.S.S.R., 1957, 946n.
(p. 994) Aliens: defined, 737;
deprivations, 738–42;
community policies, 742–45;
illegal, 921
—protection from discrimination: customary law, 321;
early practice, 745–46;
Vattel innovation, 746–49;
competing policies, 749;
national treatment, 750–52;
minimum standard, 752–55, 773;
treaties of friendship, commerce, and navigation, 755–56;
International Law Commission’s efforts, 755–64;
Garcia-Amador’s contributions, 762–64;
United Nations developments, 764–79;
European Convention, 770;
American Convention, 771–72;
future of, 776–78
Allegiance, 896
Alternatives. See Options
Ambiguity in prescriptions, 413–14
American Convention on Human Rights, 207, 280;
Preamble, 469, 771;
Art. 1, 600, 646, 685, 772;
Art. 5, 910, 916, 917n., 918, 927;
Art. 6, 501, 502;
Art. 11, 841, 888, 895;
Art. 12, 685;
Art. 13, 705;
Art. 16, 811, 812n., 813n., 839, 840n.;
Art. 20, 927n.;
Art. 22, 772;
Art. 23, 772;
Art. 24, 685;
Art. 26, 835n.;
Art. 27, 503, 518, 567n., 685, 814, 833;
Art. 28, 772;
Art. 29, 809;
Art. 30, 810;
Art. 32, 810;
Art. 45, 207, 280n.;
Art. 46, 280n., 285;
Art. 47, 280n., 285;
Art. 78, 305, 310, 316
American Declaration of Independence, 68n.
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, 1948, 198, 316, 645;
Art. 2, 685;
Art. 13, 834n.;
Art. 22, 839;
Art. 29, 807, 809
American Revolution, 3, 666
American Society of International Law (ASIL), 39n., 339n., 340n., 341n., 605n.
Amnesty International, 15n., 28n., 123n., 128n., 137n., 174, 249;
survey on torture, 250n., 255, 695;
report on mission to Republic of Korea, 695n., 710
Angola, 213
Anti-Semitism, 585–86, 589–90, 677–78, 686–87, 692n., 907
Anti-Slavery Society, 174, 504n.
Apartheid, 213, 234, 325, 503, 504, 506;
definition, 521–23;
basic community policies, 531–32;
as a crime against humanity, 535, 542;
inventory of human rights violations caused by, 547–50
—value deprivations involved, 523–29;
racial classification, 523–24;
pass system, 525, 525n.;
labor practices, 527;
endogamy, 528;
fragmentation, 529;
denial of self-determination, 530
—elimination of: by International Bill of Human Rights, 322;
related prescriptions, 532;
United Nations actions, 532–36, 550–60;
rejection of claims of domestic jurisdiction, 534;
opinions of the International Court of Justice, 537–41;
Applying function, 289–99;
definition, 88;
policy preferences, 407
Appraising function: definition, 88, 307;
claims, 159;
policy preferences, 308, 408;
United Nations, 309–10;
reporting system, 310–11;
international conferences, 311–12;
nation-states, 312–13;
nongovernmental participants, 313
Arabia, 481
Arbitrary arrest or detention, 21, 543, 548, 573n., 574, 694, 739
Arbitration, 199–207, 289, 292
Arenas, 87, 185–207
Argentina, 490;
trade agreement with Japan, 756n.;
Constitution, 881
Armenia, 936n.
Aryans/non-Aryans, 60n., 572, 574n., 578n., 692n.
Ascension Islands, 243
Ascertaining expectations, 416–17, 419
Asia, 169, 480
Asian-African, 315n., 473n., 534, 551
Assembly, freedom of, 595, 693–94, 709, 810–11, 838–40
Association, freedom of, 595, 693–94, 709, 810–11, 838–40
Assumptions. See Expectations
Asylum, right to, 707–09
Atheism, 36, 654n.
Australia: aborigines, 562n.;
Nationality and Citizenship Act, 1948, 884n., 893n., 941n.;
whites-only policy, 574n.
Austria, 197n., 213, 239, 240, 281, 298n., 485, 486, 490, 582, 880, 881, 885, 891n., 911, 914, 941n., 943, 950
(p. 995) Authority, 86, 130–32, 207–16
Autonomy, 472. See also Civic order
Awad’s Report on Slavery, 1970, 480, 503, 506, 507, 526n., 528n.
Awami League, 243
Babylon, 477
Bancroft Treaties, 874, 890–91n., 946
Bangladesh, 27n., 243–45
Banishment, 573, 657, 694
Bantu Education Act, 1953, 550
Bantu Labor Act, 1964, 548
Barbados, 706n.
Base values, 85, 130–34, 159, 207–19
Belgium, 197n., 243, 298, 359, 360, 876, 884n., 891n.;
language conflict, 563n., 715n.;
1932 Education Act, 730;
1963 Education Act, 730, 731
Berlin Conference on Central Africa, 1885, 487, 491
Bilingual Education Act, 735
Bilingualism, 716, 734–35
Black September, 819n.
Bolivia: Constitution of 1967, 706n.
Bolshevik Revolution. See Soviet Union
Book-burning, 659
Boycott. See Sanctions
Brazil, 28n., 133n., 479, 486, 490;
1967 Constitution, 602n.;
provisional government of 1889, 880
Bride price, 476, 480–81, 497
Brussels Conference, 1890, 487–94, 506
Bulgaria, 201;
Peace Treaty of 1947, 202n., 213, 240, 582, 884n.;
Treaty of Berlin, 1878, 669, 672, 673, 723n.;
1919 Treaty, 723n., 742n., 725;
1947 Peace Treaty, 725n.;
1957 Treaty on Nationality with U.S.S.R., 946n.
Bureaucratization, 124–25
Burma, 37n., 54n.
Burundi, 27n.
Byrd Amendment, 233
Calvinism, 666
Calvo doctrine, 750–51
Cambodia, 601n., 711n.
Cameroons, 538n., 555n.;
Constitution of 1961, 705n.
Canada, 26n., 610n.;
language conflict, 563n., 715n., 733–35;
Official Languages Act, 1969, 734;
and the Flegenheimer case, 873–77;
Citizenship Act, 1946, 884n., 896
Cape of Good Hope, 486n.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 348, 645n., 751n.
Carter administration, 186
Caste: definition, 508;
history of, 511;
community policies, 512–14
—value deprivations, 508–11;
hereditary stratification, 508;
untouchables, 509;
myth of “pollution,” 510;
debt bondage, 511
—elimination of: ancient efforts, 514;
modern efforts, 515–20
Catholicism, 36n., 37n., 176, 665–66, 669, 711
Censorship, 23, 23–24n., 24, 25, 25–26n., 59–61, 120–21n., 122n., 152, 526, 659
Central African Empire (Central African Republic), 99n.
Centralization, 124–25, 818–19
Ceylon, 490, 512n.;
Citizenship Act, 1948, 884n., 893n.
Chad: Constitution of 1962, 706n.
Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States, 1974, 229, 759n.
Chattel slavery, 474, 480–81, 493
Child labor, 322, 475–76, 480–81, 498
Child marriage, 475–76, 640
Chile, 28n., 214, 133n., 235, 254, 490, 519, 563n., 695
China, 25n., 29n., 58n., 60n., 121n., 163, 208, 476n., 478;
revolution, 3;
U.N. delegate, 519;
settlers in Southeast Asia, 526n.;
Constitution of the People’s Republic, 1954, 649;
Religious Affairs Bureau, 656
Cicero, 889
Citizenship: UN, 956–57;
world, 957. See also Nationality
City. See Urban culture
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 602
Claimants. See Claims to authority
Claims to authority: categorization by values, 143;
importance of, 143–44;
claimants, 145;
perspectives, 145–46;
types of, 146–58;
conditions of, 159–60
Clarified focus, principle of, 421
Class, 109–10, 445, 519–20. See also Caste
Clear and present danger, 699–700
Club of Rome, 14n., 32n., 41n., 51, 228n., 433n.
Coercion, 237;
definition of, 451n.
(p. 996) Collective security, 139
Commission on Status of Women, 621, 633, 634, 635n., 636, 637n., 638n., 639n., 640n., 641n., 650, 651n., 927, 933n.
Committee of Twenty-four on Decolonization, 188–89, 192, 193
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 190, 196, 206, 279, 296, 356, 358, 359, 593, 607–10, 775
Commodity control, 230–31
Common interests. See Interests
Communication: instantaneity in, 122, 129–30, 819;
process of, 264–66, 269–77. See also Censorship; Press
Competence, 208–16. See also Jurisdiction
Complementarity in prescriptions, 413–14
Comprehensive public order. See Public order
Compulsory jurisdiction. See Arbitration
Concert of Europe, 165
Congo (Brazzaville), 601n., 706n.
Congo (Leopoldville), 601n., 670
Congo River, 487
Congress of Aix-la-Chappelle, 1818, 164–65
Congress of Vienna, 1815, 485
Connally Reservation, 199
Constitutionalism, 472
Constitutive decisions, 87, 162
Constitutive process, definition of, 87–88, 159, 162
Consultative Council of Jewish Organizations, 287
Content, principles of, 419–20, 804
Contextual principle, 420
Convention against Discrimination in Education, 1960, 268;
Art. 1, 518, 567n., 584, 632, 675, 704, 728;
Art. 2, 728;
Art. 3, 769n.;
Art. 5, 728
Convention concerning Abolition of Forced Labour, 1957, 268, 499, 500n., 504
Convention concerning Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation (Discrimination Convention), 1958, 268, 518, 567n., Art. 1, 584, 632, 675, 704
Convention concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour, 1930, 494, 495, 495n, 504
Convention for the Amelioration of the Conditions of the Wounded and Sick in the Field, 1949, 306
Convention for the Amelioration of the Conditions of the Wounded, Sick, and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 1949, 306
Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, 496
Convention of St. Germain-en-Laye, 1919, 491
Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws (Hague Convention on Nationality), 1930, 874, 875n.;
Arts. 1 and 2, 878, 912n., 930n.
Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage, and Registration of Marriages, 1952, 268, 632, 633
Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas, 204–05
Convention on the High Seas, 1958, 499
Convention on the International Right of Correction, 362
Convention on the Nationality of Married Women, 1957, 267;
Art. 1, 631, 638, 882n., 883, 899n., 900n., 927;
Art. 2, 631, 638, 882n.;
Art. 9, 305
Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: Art. 1, 536n.;
Art. 9, 362
Convention on the Political Rights of Women, 1952, 253, 268;
Art. 1, 630, 638;
Art. 2, 630, 638;
Art. 3, 630, 638;
Art. 8, 305, 310;
Art. 9, 200
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, 1974, 956n.
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948, 200, 346–47, 355–56, 704, 729, 917;
Art. 2, 355n., 413, 542, 543, 568n., 674, 704;
Art. 3, 355n., 413, 542;
Art. 6, 200, 267, 302;
Art. 14, 305
Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, 1961: Art. 1, 928–30;
Art. 2, 928–30;
Art. 3, 928–30;
Art. 4, 928–30, 931;
Art. 5, 934–35;
Art. 7, 894, 912, 930n., 932;
Art. 8, 934–35;
Art. 9, 917, 926;
Art. 10, 934–35;
Art. 11, 957;
Art. 14, 200, 267
Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, 751
Convention Relating to the International Status of Refugees, 1933, 707, 708n.;
Art. 3, 769n., 936
(p. 997) Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951 (Magna Carta of Refugees), 674, 708, 913, 936;
Art. 1, 936n.;
Art. 3, 567n., 675n., Art. 27, 957n.;
Art. 28, 957n.;
Art. 31, 940;
Art. 32, 940;
Art. 33, 940;
Art. 34, 932;
Art. 35, 253n., 267, 937n.;
Art. 36, 253n., 267;
Art. 38, 200, 253;
Art. 44, 305, 310;
Art. 45, 362
Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, 1954, 253, 936;
Art. 2, 939n.;
Art. 3, 567n., 674, 675n., 769n., 913;
Art. 5, 939n.;
Art. 16, 939n.;
Art. 27, 940n., 941n.;
Art. 28, 940n., 941n.;
Art. 31, 940n., 941n.;
Art. 32, 931, 937, 940n.;
Art. 33, 253n.;
Art. 41, 362
Convention Respecting Conditions of Residence and Business and Jurisdiction between the British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, &c., and Turkey (Lausanne, 1923), 755
Corrective code, 831
Costa Rica, 287, 288, 610n., 941n.;
Constitution of 1949 (as amended in 1963), 706n.
Council of Europe, 37n., 197, 299, 770, 812n., 956n.;
Consultative Assembly, 189, 843, 928n., 929n.;
secretary-general, 197, 281;
Committee of Ministers, 207n., 297–99, 359, 928n.
Council on Namibia, 192–94
Counter-culture, 691
Court of Justice of European Communities, 192
Crete, 239
Crimes against humanity; 354–56, 535–36, 542–46
Crimes against peace, 354
Crisis, 113, 126–30, 445
Cruel and inhuman punishment (treatment), 901–02, 918–19
Cuba, 346, 486, 490, 519
Cujus regio eius religio, 666n.
Cultural rights, 825, 833–38
Culture, 107–09, 118, 426, 445, 835–38
Culture shock, 109
Cyprus, 37n., 197n., 281
Czechoslovakia, 582;
1960 Constitution, 601n.;
Treaty of Versailles, 1919, 672, 723n.;
1957 Treaty on Nationality with U.S.S.R., 946n.
Dahomy: Constitution of 1964, 706n.
Danzig, 336
Debt bondage, 474, 480–81, 497
Decade for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, 598, 599n.
Decision functions, 87–88, 159, 248–313, 404–08
Declaration of Philadelphia, 626
Declaration of the Establishment of a New International Economic Order, 1974, 229, 230, 314, 759n.
Declaration of the Rights of Man, 1789, 666, 705
Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1959, 567n.
Declaration on Mass Communication Media and Human Rights (Council of Europe, 1970), 843
Declaration on Social Progress and Development, 1969, 369, 567n., 786–88
Declaration on Territorial Asylum, 1967, 709
Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1963, 520;
Preamble, 587n., 635, 638, 677, 678n., 680;
Art. 2, 683n., 687, 917;
Art. 5, 536, 566n., 585–87
Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, 1967, 567n., 633;
legislative history, 633n., 634;
Art. 1, 635;
Art. 2, 636;
Art. 4, 637;
Art. 5, 638, 769n., 933;
Art. 6, 639, 641;
Art. 7, 643, 650;
Art. 9, 640;
Art. 10, 641
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, 328
Declaration on the Occasion of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the United Nations, 1970, 329
Declaration on the Promotion among Youth of the Ideals of Peace, Mutual Respect, and Understanding between Peoples, 1965, 567n.
Decolonization, 168–69, 192, 193, 759, 777
Demands for human rights, 7–13, 45, 114–15, 185, 444, 803
Denationalization, 900–19, 923–24
Denial of justice, 739–40
Denmark, 197n., 281, 298n., 490, 891n., 941n.
Denunciation of treaties, 304–06
Deprivations and nonfulfillments, 15–37;
in slavery and slave-like practices, 473–76;
in caste societies, 508–12;
in apartheid, 521–30, 547–50;
because of race, 571–77;
because of sex, 612–23;
because of religious belief, 653–61;
(p. 998)
because of nonconforming opinion, 690–97;
because of language, 713–20;
because of alienage, 738–42;
because of age, 779–82
—conditions affecting: environmental factors, 38–44;
predispositional factors, 45–47;
interdependences, 47–63
Derogation, 146, 158–59, 675–76, 813–14
Descent, 381, 520, 589, 601
Desuetudo, 301
Deterrence, 605
Developmental construct, 436–40
Diet of Torda, 666
Diplomatic arenas, 186, 291
Diplomatic Conference on Humanitarian Law, 1974, 189n.
Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts (Geneva, 1976), 447
Diplomatic instrument, 220–23, 446
Diplomatic protection, remedy of, 220–22, 764–65, 773–76, 866–78
Distributive justice, 459
Domestic jurisdiction, 89, 185, 208–15, 243, 403
Dominican Republic, 242n., 490
Draft Alternative Convention on the Elimination of Present Statelessness, 920n.
Draft Convention on Arbitral Procedure, 203–04n., 204n.
Draft Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1967, 633–43
Draft Convention on the Elimination of Religious Intolerance, 587, 677–84
Draft Convention on the International Responsibility of States for Injuries to Aliens, 337
Draft Convention on the Reduction of Future Statelessness, 926
Draft Declaration on Rights and Duties of States, 1949, 336
Draft Declaration on the Elimination of Religious Intolerance: 587, 677;
legislative history, 677n., 678–80; 681–84
Draft International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and Discrimination based on Religion and Belief, 1967, 678, 686
Droits de la personalité, 856. See also Personality, right of
Due process, 87, 727–28
Duties, 807
East Africa, 562n.
East Pakistan. See Bangladesh
Ecological crisis, 42–44
Economic instrument, 227–36
Economy, principle of, 420
Ecuador, 490, 610n., 670;
1967 Constitution, 601n., 706n.;
nationality law, 884n., 891n.
Edict of Nantes, 1598, 666
Effective nationality, principle of, 947–51
Effective power, 87, 161–62, 217–19
Egypt, 490;
ancient, 484, 755n.;
1972 Constitution, 649;
1964 Constitution, 706n.
Eighth International Conference of American States (Lima, 1938), 645
El Salvador, 36n.
Emancipation Proclamation, 486
Embargo. See Sanctions
Emigration, right of, 895
Employment. See Work, right to
Employment Policy Convention, 1964: 269;
Art. 1(2), 704;
Art. 6, 305n., 567n.
England. See Great Britain
Enlightenment, 85;
demands, 9–10;
transnational interdependence, 52;
relations with other values, 55–56;
claims, 151–52;
policy preferences, 387–89
—deprivations, 22–25;
in slavery or slave-like practices, 475;
in caste societies, 510;
in apartheid, 526, 549;
because of race, 574–75;
because of sex, 618–19;
because of religion, 658–59;
because of nonconforming opinion, 692–93;
because of language, 715–17;
because of alienage, 741–42;
because of age, 782
Entebbe rescue operation, 245
Enterprisory code, 831
Environmental deterioration. See Ecological crisis
Equality of opportunity, 462–64, 561–68
(p. 999) Equality of treatment, doctrine of. See National treatment, doctrine of
Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951, 268;
Art. 19(1), 305n., 568n.;
Art. 2, 629;
Art. 3, 630
Equal Rights Amendment, 646
Erga omnes, 354, 359
Espionage Act of 1917, 700n.
Essentials of Peace Resolution, 328
Estonia, 582, 672
Ethnic origin, 569, 589
Ethiopia, 21n., 347, 529n., 531n.;
in ICJ litigation, 538, 539n., 596n.
European Atomic Energy Community, 192
European Coal and Steel Community, 192
European Commission on Human Rights, 28n., 179, 198, 279, 281–83, 297–99, 357–58, 454n., 502n., 730, 770, 756n.
European Convention on Human Rights, 1950, 191–92, 197, 297–99, 316, 567–68n.;
Art. 1, 770, 771n., 775;
Art. 3, 910n., 916, 918, 919, 956;
Art. 4, 501, 502, 503n.;
Art. 8, 730, 810, 840, 841n., 843, 888, 895;
Art. 9, 684–85;
Art. 10, 705;
Art. 11, 811, 812n., 839;
Art. 14, 503n., 600, 644, 684, 705, 729, 730–32;
Art. 15, 502, 518, 813, 833, 835n.;
Art. 17, 809;
Art. 19, 297;
Art. 24, 205, 207, 280, 281, 298, 956n.;
Art. 25, 197, 198, 199n., 206, 283, 284, 297–98, 775n.;
Art. 26, 283, 284, 297, 775n.;
Art. 27, 283, 284, 297–98, 775n.;
Art. 28, 297n., 775n.;
Art. 29, 775n.;
Art. 30, 775n.;
Art. 31, 775n.;
Art. 32, 775n.;
Art. 44, 298n., 299;
Art. 65, 305, 310, 316, 357, 454, 469;
Protocol No. 1, Art. 2, 730–32;
Protocol No. 4, Art. 2, 812
European Convention on Reduction of Cases of Multiple Nationality and Military Obligation in Cases of Multiple Nationality, 1963: Art. 1, 944–45, 951–52;
Art. 6, 952n.
European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, 1976, 207n.
European Court of Human Rights, 290, 297, 298–99, 357, 729–32, 843
European Economic Community (EEC), 192, 644n.
European Social Charter, 310
Euthanasia, 10, 30
Excès de pouvoir, 334
Exchange of information and documentation, 251
Exclusive interests. See Interests
Executive arenas, 190, 291
Expatriation. See Nationality, withdrawal of
Expatriation Act of 1954, 905–06
Expectations, 47, 117–19, 184–85, 275, 402, 416–19
Expression, freedom of, 549, 595, 698–701, 803
Fact-finding, 251, 253–54, 289
Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970, 857n.
Fair Housing Act of 1968, 602
Far East, 481, 510n., 514
Federal Republic of Germany, 197n., 298n., 340, 819, 881, 915–16, 941n.;
1949 Constitution, 648, 854–55. See also Germany
Fifth International Conference of American States, 1923, 644
Fifth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (Geneva, 1975), 16n.
Finland, 671, 673, 725, 944n.;
1947 Peace Treaty, 725n.
First International Conference of American States (Washington, D.C., 1889), 751
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 27n., 172, 190, 252, 507, 556
Forced labor, 33, 268, 322, 492–507 passim, 527, 548, 575
Foreign Assistance Act, 1975, 14n., 234, 312
France, 197n., 210, 239, 240, 298n., 315, 484–86, 490, 556n., 613n., 668, 856, 873, 880, 949;
revolution, 3, 666;
Edict of Nantes, 1598, 666–67;
Nationality Code, 1945, 887n.;
Constitution of 1791, 890
Franco-German Mixed Tribunal, 949
Franco-Turkish Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, 948n., 949
Freedom, definition of, 451n.
Freedom of choice, 451–52, 460–62, 468–560, 817, 864, 955–56
French-Mexican Mixed Claims Commission, 949
Fundamental law, definition of, 317–19
Future, projection of, 93, 265, 421, 436–40. See also Expectations
Garcia-Amador’s reports on state responsibility, 739n., 750n., 753n., 761n., 762–63, 773
Garrison state, 438–39
(p. 1000) General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT), 251
General Claims Convention between the United States and Mexico, 1923, 754
Genetic engineering, 30, 392, 439
Genocide, 27, 215, 322, 355–56, 572, 576, 659
“Genuine link” theory, 870–73
Geographic dimension of human rights, 119–20, 120–21
German-Mexican Claims Commission, 880n.
Germany, 671n.;
religious freedom, 670;
Ghana: Constitution of the Republic, 706n.;
Nationality and Citizenship Act of 1957, 884n., 893n.
Global bill of rights, 180;
history of, 313–20;
invocation of, 357–60;
—enforcement: by U.N., 332–35;
on nation-states, 335–50;
on nongovernmental actors, 350–57
—sources of: agreement, 320–30;
custom, 331
Great Britain, 197n., 201–02, 281, 315, 351;
and nationality, 210, 873n., 884n., 891, 893n.;
humanitarian intervention, 239–40, 243;
constitution, 331;
anti-slavery movement, 484–86, 489–90;
and apartheid, 540, 546, 555–56n.;
racial discrimination in, 562–63n., 574n., 602;
religious freedom in, 664n., 666, 670
Greece, 37n., 163, 197n., 208, 239, 281, 483, 563n., 582, 590n., 672, 723, 884n.;
ancient, 471, 477–78, 483, 720;
1920 Treaty, 723n.
Grotius Society, 912
Group areas, 529, 549
Growth, limits to, 41–43
Guatemala, 490, 870–71;
1956 Constitution, 706n.
Guilt by association, 697
Guinea, 479
Gulag Archipelago, The (Solzhenitsyn), 17n., 695
Hague Conference for the Codification of International Law, 1930, 753, 891;
Final Act of Conference, 891, 912, 912n., 924, 930, 943–44
Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907, 165, 182
Hague Convention on Nationality, 1930, 631, 924;
Art. 4, 947–49, 951;
Art. 5, 947;
Art. 6, 944;
Art. 7, 893, 929;
Art. 8, 932n.;
Art. 12, 944n.;
Art. 13, 934n.;
Art. 14, 929n.;
Art. 15, 927;
Art. 16, 934n.;
Art. 17, 934n.
Hague Conventions, 1902, 1904, 1910, 625
Hague Conventions for Pacific Settlement of Disputes, 1899, 201
Hammurabi Code, 482
Harvard Draft Convention on State Responsibility, 1961, 872
Harvard Draft Convention on the Law of Nationality, 889n.
Harvard Research in International Law, 300n., 747n., 861n., 866n., 878n., 879n., 882n., 886n., 887n., 899n., 900n.
Harvard Research on the Law of Nationality, 957
Hebrew Law: slavery, 482–83
Hindu law and usage: marriage, 510n.
Hiroshima, 128
Historical approach to inquiry, 71–73
Holy See, 913n.
Hong Kong, 476n.
Honduras, 670
Holocaust, 27n., 53, 56n., 182, 224, 320, 355, 572, 574n., 576n., 659n., 908. See also Nuremberg tribunal
Homeland, 529
Horizontal legal order, 215
Human dignity: universal quest, 373;
origins of concept, 376
Humanitarian intervention, 181–82, 238–39, 246–47, 670;
U.N. Charter, 240;
permissibility, 240–42
—examples: historical, 239–40;
the Congo case, 242–43;
the Bangladesh case, 243–45;
the Entebbe rescue operation, 245–46
Human Rights Committee, 190, 196, 279, 292–96, 356, 358, 361
Human Rights Day, 225
Hungary, 213, 490, 582, 590n., 666, 725n., 672–73, 723, 880;
Peace Treaty of 1947, 201–02;
1920 Treaty, 723n., 725;
Nationality Act of 1948, 887n., 891n.;
(p. 1001)
denationalization, 907–08, 943;
1957 Treaty on Nationality with U.S.S.R., 946n.
Hunger, 51
Iceland, 197n., 298n.
Ideological instrument, 223–27, 447
Immigrants. See Nationality; Refugees
Immigration and Naturalization Service of the United States, 874
Imperial Act of 1833 (Great Britain), 489
Implementation, 66–67, 399–400
Inclusive interests. See Interests
Incompatibilities in demands, 802–03
Incorporation theory: in United States Constitution, 850
India, 17n., 26n., 128n., 163, 208, 478, 481n., 562n.;
Indo-Pakistani war, 244;
and castes, 512, 519;
1949 Constitution, 515, 545;
Untouchability (Offences) Act, 1955, 516;
Hindu-Moslem conflict, 563n.;
language conflict, 563n., 711n., 715n., 718n.;
Citizenship Act, 1955, 884n., 893n.
Individual, role of the: in social process, 96–97;
in constitutive process, 176–79;
in prescribing function, 264–65, 269;
in invoking function, 192–98, 282–86;
in terminating function, 301;
in appraising function, 313
Individual petition, right of, 193–98, 206, 282–86, 609–11, 955
Indonesia, 27n., 576n., 711n.
Inducment. See Economic instrument
Inquisition, 61n., 657. See also Religious discrimination
Institute of International Law, 911, 912n.
Institutionalization of society, 123–26
Intelligence function: definition of, 87;
in constitutive process, 248–56;
preferred policy, 405–06
Inter-American Commission of Women, 626, 644–45
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 177, 190–92, 198, 279, 285, 316, 357, 695n., 775–76
Inter-American Convention on Nationality (Montevideo, 1933), 884–85
Inter-American Convention on the Granting of Civil Rights to Women, 645
Inter-American Convention on the Granting of Political Rights to Women, 645
Inter-American Convention on the Status of Naturalized Citizens (Rio de Janeiro, 1906), 943
Interests, 110, 184, 415–19;
special, 261, 277, 409, 426–27, 445;
exclusive, 409–12;
inclusive, 409–12. See also Aggregate interest
International agreement, 265–69. See also Prescribing function
International Agreement for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic (Paris, 1904), 625n.
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), 172, 228, 251
International Commission of Jurists, 20n., 28n., 174, 856n.;
Tibetan question, 213n., 244n., 245n., 249;
staff studies, 249n., 521n., 854n.
International concern, 89, 185, 208–15, 403
International Conference on Human Rights (Teheran, 1968), 22n., 187, 225n., 311n., 312n.;
Final Act, 470, 536, 567, 643, 704, 842n. See also Proclamation of Teheran.
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1966, 585–98, 605–11;
Art. 1, 520, 588, 590, 591, 592, 593, 594, 596, 635, 677, 680, 683, 686, 687, 729, 769, 770;
Art. 2, 353, 596, 597, 598, 601, 607;
Art. 3, 536, 585, 587;
Art. 4, 595, 606;
Art. 5, 591, 592, 593, 595;
Art. 6, 598, 601, 606;
Art. 7, 606;
Art. 8, 297n., 302, 607n.;
Art. 9, 253n., 258, 259n., 267, 277, 279, 608;
Art. 11, 206, 207, 253, 279n., 608, 611, 956n.;
Art. 12, 206, 207, 253, 279n., 608, 609;
Art. 13, 206, 207, 253, 279n., 608;
Art. 14, 196–97, 609, 610, 611, 775n., 917;
Art. 15, 610, 611;
Art. 21, 205, 305n., 310;
Art. 23, 362
International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, 1973, 267, 302, 356n., 542–47;
Art. 1, 542;
Art. 2, 543;
Art. 3, 544–46, 566, 567n.
(p. 1002) International Council of Women, 174
International Court of Justice, 189, 199–206, 286–87, 292, 302, 324, 334, 335n., 338, 342, 345–47, 357, 359–60, 473, 537–41, 551, 599–600, 759, 870–73, 876–78, 947–48;
—Statute of: Art. 34, 192;
Art. 36, 199, 264;
Art. 38, 262, 344n., 473n., 568n.;
Optional Clause, 199
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966, 90, 179–80;
Preamble, 469;
Art. 2, 352, 353, 517, 546, 565, 584, 675, 703, 708, 709n., 726, 766n., 767;
Art. 3, 628;
Art. 4, 502, 675, 813, 832, 833;
Art. 5, 808;
Art. 7, 910n., 916, 918, 919, 927;
Art. 8, 500, 501;
Art. 12, 768, 776n., 786;
Art. 13, 768, 776n., 786;
Art. 14, 27, 727, 765n.;
Art. 17, 840, 888, 895, 909;
Art. 18, 675, 676, 685;
Art. 19, 703, 708, 709n., 726;
Art. 22, 810, 811n., 812n., 838, 839n.;
Art. 24, 676, 927n.;
Art. 25, 768, 776n., 786;
Art. 26, 565, 703, 708, 709n., 726;
Art. 27, 676;
Art. 40, 253n., 267;
Art. 41, 207, 253, 279n., 280, 292, 293, 295, 956n.;
Art. 42, 293;
Art. 45, 295, 296, 302, 304, 310, 322, 327
International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, 1966, 90, 179–80, 241, 253, 267, 296, 302, 304, 310, 322, 327, 832;
Art. 2, 353, 357, 361, 413, 468n., 518, 546, 565, 585, 628n., 676, 704, 709n., 726–27, 728n., 765n., 766n., 769, 776n., 786;
Art. 3, 628;
Art. 4, 808;
Art. 6, 787;
Art. 13, 676;
Art. 15, 834, 909, 916;
Art. 16, 253n., 292n., 296n.;
Art. 17, 253n., 292n.;
Art. 18, 253n., 292n.;
Art. 19, 253n., 292n.;
Art. 20, 253n., 292n.;
Art. 21, 253n., 292n., 296n.;
Art. 22, 253n., 292n., 296n.;
Art. 23, 292n.;
Art. 24, 292n.;
Art. 25, 292n.
International Day for Elimination of Racial Discrimination (March 21), 225
International Development Association, 228
International Development Strategy for Second United Nations Development Decade, 644
International Finance Corporation, 228
International governmental organizations, 100, 170–73
—role of: in social process, 100;
in constitutive process, 170–73;
in the intelligence function, 250–54;
in the promoting function, 258–59;
in the prescribing function, 272–76;
in the invoking function, 286–89;
in the applying function, 292–99;
in the terminating function, 301;
in the appraising function, 309–12
International Labor Organization (ILO), 172, 499;
International Labor Office, 4n., 5n., 16n., 103n., 133n., 190, 254n., 310, 527n., 556, 575n., 584, 618n., 619n., 620n., 660, 661n., 696n., 704, 788n., 789n.;
International Labor Conference, 189, 305n., 311n., 494n., 499n., 504n., 507, 518n., 584n., 618, 696n., 704;
U.S. withdrawal, 218n., 252;
Committee of Experts, 257, 279, 311, 706;
reports, 480, 494, 499n., 504n., 507, 660
—Constutition, 310–11;
Preamble, 626, 629, 634n.;
Art. 22, 311n., 361;
Art. 26, 280n.
International law. See Jus cogens; Jus gentium; and passim
International Law Association, 175, 224, 910;
American Branch Report, 286n., 687n.
International Law Commission, 203, 204, 299n., 300n., 336n., 931, 935;
work on the Law of Treaties, 342, 343, 344n., 739n., 748n.;
work on state responsibility for injury to aliens, 759–64, 866n.;
work on nationality, 910, 925–26, 947n.;
Report on Multiple Nationality, 946
International League for Human Rights, 174;
report on implementing human rights commitment in U.S. foreign policy, 227n., 441n.
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 172, 189, 228, 251
International Ombudsman, 956
International Press Institute, 24n., 175
International Red Cross, 175, 710
International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976, 234n.
International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 172
International Women’s Year (1975), 226, 612, 613n., 634, 651
International Year for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, 1971, 225, 598
International Year of Human Rights (1968), 225, 326
International Year of the Child (1979), 226
INTERPOL, 504–07
Interstate complaint. See State-to-state complaint
(p. 1003) Investigation. See Fact-finding; On-the-spot investigation
Invoking function: definition, 87, 278;
in constitutive process, 278–89, 357–60, 830;
preferred policy, 406–07
I.Q., 579–81
Iran, 28n., 711n. See also Persia
Iraq, 55, 582;
General Federation of Iraqi Women Act (No. 13 of 1972), 650;
minority protection under the League regime, 671–72, 723
Ireland, 197n., 298n., 941n.;
Protestant-Catholic conflict, 37n., 281, 563n.
“Iron law of oligarchy,” 426–27
Islam, 37n., 478n., 649, 686
Israel, 213, 245, 590n., 613n., 660n., 914;
Women’s Equal Rights Law, 5711–1951, 649
Italian-U.S. Conciliation Commission, 873–75, 950–51
Italy, 197n., 213, 240, 298n., 346, 610n., 673, 725;
1947 Peace Treaty, 725n., 873;
Peace Treaty with U.S., 873, 880;
denationalization, 905, 907, 911, 950
Ivory Coast, 706n,
Jamaica, 312
Japan, 56, 58n., 903;
caste, 514, 670;
Trade Agreement with Argentina, 756n.
Jay Treaties, 201
Jewish denationalization, 907–08
Job reservations, 527, 550. See also Work, right to
Jordan, 616n., 893;
Nationality Law of 1954, 893n.
Judaism, 36n., 137n., 235n., 686
Jurisdiction, principles of, 215–16, 354
Jus civile, 738, 745
Jus cogens, 185, 206, 274, 317–18, 339–50, 360, 401, 417
Jus dispositivum, 342, 347
Jus gentium, 163, 483
Jus naturale, 163
Jus sanguinis, 864, 878–79, 922, 927–28, 942, 950, 954
Jus soli, 864, 878–79, 922, 927–28, 942, 950, 954
Jus standi, 876
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 182
Kennedy administration, 287
Kenya, 36n., 555n.;
1963 Constitution, 601n., 706n.
Kerner Commission, 530n.
Kinship, 424, 429
Korea, Democratic Republic of (North Korea), 946n.
Korea, Republic of (South Korea), 21n., 25n., 563;
1948 Constitution, 517
Koseki, 903
Kuwait, 593n., 616n.
Lagonissi conference on jus cogens, 348
Language, freedom of, 713–36. See also Canada; India
Latin America, 24n., 28n., 480, 484, 585, 626, 673, 719n., 750, 751, 759, 880
Latvia, 582, 672, 673
League of Arab States, 171, 189, 316
League of Nations: League Council, 210, 252, 583;
League Assembly, 492, 494, 497, 506, 538, 582–83;
Mandates System, 491;
Permanent Mandates Commission, 492;
Secretary-General, 492n.;
Secretariat, 626;
Office of High Commissioner for Russian Refugees, 936, 943n.
—Covenant, 165, 182, 210, 252, 625;
Art. 7, 626;
Art. 15, 209–10, 252;
Art. 22, 491, 671–72, 702, 707, 723, 891n., 942n.;
Art. 23, 492n., 626n.
Lebanon, 37n.
Liberia, 347, 529n., 531n., 671;
ICJ litigation, 538, 539n., 596n.
Libya, 17n., 138n.;
1951 Constitution, 601n., 706n.
Liechtenstein, 616n., 870–71
Lima Declaration in Favor of Women’s Rights, 1938, 645
Limitations on freedoms and rights. See Accommodation of interests; Aggregate interest
Lincoln’s freedom dictum, 482
Lithuania, 582, 672, 723;
Declaration of 1922, 723n.
Local remedies, exhaustion of, 282–85, 868
Logical (syntactic) derivation of rules from principles, 67n., 70, 74–75, 378
Loyalty test, 696
Luxembourg, 197n., 298n., 884n.
Madagascar, 486, 546n.;
Constitution of 1959, 706n.
Magna Carta, 326, 331;
“Magna Carta of humankind,” 274;
“Magna Carta of the (p. 1004) African slave trade,” 487;
“Magna Carta of Refugees,” 936
Malawi: 1964 Constitution, 601n., 706n.
Malaysia, 37n., 884n.;
Constitution of 1957, 893n.
Malta, 197n.
Malthusian theory, 40
Mandates System, 491–92, 537–38, 539n., 540;
“B” and “C” Mandates, 492;
French Mandate for Togoland (Class B), 671;
South African Mandate for South West Africa (Class C), 671. See also League of Nations
Manifest focus, principle of, 420–21
Manumission, 483–84
Marriage, 267, 268, 322, 510;
servile, 35, 476, 480–81, 497;
interracial, 35, 528, 544, 549, 576, 591, 604;
child, 475–76, 640;
and sex-based discrimination, 615, 616–17, 618, 620–22, 625, 632–33, 647;
Marxism, 76–79, 656n., 686, 698n.
Mauritania, 555n.
Maximization postulate, 37–38, 93, 428–29, 443
Mediation. See Arbitration
Mediterranean, ancient, 514. See also Egypt; Greece; Roman law; Rome
Mendelian population, 570
Mexico, 118n., 235, 897, 898n.;
Jewish boycott on travel to, 236n., 880;
Constitution of 1857, 880;
Nationality Law of 1886, 880;
Constititution of 1917, as amended by decree in 1934, 880n.
Middle East. See individual countries
Military expenditure, 33, 42, 433
Military instrument, 236–47, 446–47
Military service, 897, 942, 944–45, 951–52
Minimum international standard, 749, 752–58, 773
Minimum public order, 183, 236–37, 322–23, 401, 411–12, 446–47
Mini-state, 169
Mixed Court of Justice, 486
Monaco, 884n.
Mongolia: 1960 Constitution, 601n.;
1958 Treaty on Nationality with U.S.S.R., 946n.
Montenegro, 669
Montevideo Convention on the Nationality of Women, 1933, 645, 927;
Art. 1, 927n., 933
Montreal Assembly for Human Rights, 326
Morocco, 210
Most-favored-nation treatment, 756
Multinational corporations, 103–04
Mu-tsai, 476
National Institute of Aging (NIA), 780n.
National Institute of Health (NIH), 780n.
Nationalism. See Identifications
Nationalist China. See Taiwan
Nationality: principle of, 215;
protection of nationals, 220–22, 866–78, 953–58;
concept of, 737–38, 861–63;
multiple, 863, 900, 941–53;
voluntarism and, 863–65, 884–86;
of minors, 883–84, 900, 925, 933–34
—conferment of: at birth, 878–79;
subsequent to birth, 879;
coercive, 879–86;
limitations on voluntarism, 886–87. See also Naturalization
—statelessness, 322, 862–63, 865, 869, 920–24, 955;
remedies for, 924–35, 956–57;
mitigations of, 935–41
—withdrawal of: voluntary expatriation, 883, 889–95, 900, 923;
with consent, 895–900;
without consent, 900–19
National origin, 517–18, 520, 569, 584–85, 588–89, 600, 601
National treatment, doctrine of, 749–52, 773
Nation-state: as sole subject of international law, 774, 866–68
—role of: in social process, 98–99;
in constitutive process, 168–70;
in the intelligence function, 249, 254, 256;
in the promoting function, 257–58;
in the prescribing function, 264–72;
in the invoking function, 279–82;
in the applying function, 290–91;
in the terminating function, 301;
in the appraising function, 312–13
Naturalization, 717, 879, 930–34, 940;
compulsory, 879–85
Natural law approach to inquiry, 68–71
Nazis, 577n.;
censorship of science, 60n.;
racial theories, 572, 574n., 578n.;
nationality measures, 881, 906–08, 915–16. See also Holocaust; Nuremberg tribunal
(p. 1005) Necessity, principle of, 804, 813–14
Nepal, 512n.;
1962 Constitution, 516–17, 601n.
Netherlands, the, 197n., 281, 298n., 479, 490, 610n., 670, 884n.
New International Economic Order, 229–30
New York State Department of Education, 791
New Zealand: British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act of 1948, 884n., 893n.
Niger, 706n.
Nigeria, 24n., 27n., 35n.;
Biafra conflict, 576n., 616n.;
Constitution of, 1963, 706n.
Niger River, 487
Nile, 109
Ninth International Conference of American States (Bogota, 1948), 316n., 645, 807n.
Nobel Foundation, 176
Nonconforming political belief: deprivations, 690–97;
policies, basic community, 697–701;
humanitarian intervention, 702;
League of Nations developments, 702;
United Nations developments, 702–04;
regional decisions, 705–06;
national constitutions, 705;
ancillary prescriptions, 706–10;
future developments, 710–12
Nondiscrimination, general norm of, 564–68, 702–07, 909, 916–18
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 145, 174n., 226–27, 255, 259–61, 287n., 440–41
—role of: in social process, 101–06;
in constitutive process, 173–76;
in the intelligence function, 255;
in the promoting function, 259–61;
in the prescribing function, 264–65, 269;
in the invoking function, 282–86;
in the terminating function, 301;
in the appraising function, 313
Nordic Conference on the Right of Privacy, 1967, 843, 844, 854n., 857n.
Norway, 197n., 281, 298n., 546n., 610n., 613n., 670, 891n., 903, 941n.;
Provisional Act of 1956, 502n.;
Nationality Act of 1950, 886n.
Nuremberg tribunal, 354–55, 545
Office, right to hold, 17, 516, 518, 524, 550, 573, 591, 616, 630, 631, 637–38, 645, 658, 693, 717, 738, 743, 768, 773
Official Languages Act, 1969 (Canada), 734
On-the-spot investigation, 251, 253–54, 289
OPEC, 54
Optimum public order, 183, 322–23, 401, 410, 411–12, 446–47
Optional Protocol of Signature concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes, 1958, 204
Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 180, 192, 196, 267, 279, 295, 302, 304, 322, 327, 356, 358, 361, 768n., 776;
Arts. 1–5, 285
Optional Protocol to the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963, 205
Optional Protocol to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961, 205
Options, invention and evaluation of, 93, 422, 440–47
Ordre public, 317, 811, 814
Organization of African Unity (OAU), 171;
Assembly of the Heads of State and Government, 189;
Charter, 317
Organization of American States (OAS), 171;
General Assembly, 189, 191;
Charter, 198, 316, 357, 772n.
Orthodox Church, 668
Ottoman Empire, 669
Pacem in Terris (papal encyclical), 373
Pakistan, 37n., 243–45;
1962 Constitution, 516;
Hindu-Muslim conflict, 563n., 576n.;
nationality law, 884n.
Palestine refugees, 190n.
Panama, 611n.
Pan American Union, 165, 277n., 316n.
Paraguay, 418n.;
1967 Constitution, 649, 711n.
Pariah, 720
Par in parem non habet imperium, 760
Paris Peace Conference, 1919, 209, 336
Parliamentary arenas, 188–89, 291
Parliamentary-diplomatic arenas, 187
Parochialism. See Identifications
Participation: in social process, 85, 95–113, 145;
in constitutive process, 167–79, 400–01
Pass system, 524–25, 549
Past, analysis of, 92, 368, 421, 423–28
Peaces of Kappel of 1529 and 1531, 665
Penumbra theory, 845–46, 850
Peonage, 474, 480–81
People’s Republic of China. See China
Peremptory norm, 317, 341–50, 360. See also Jus cogens
(p. 1006) Permanent Arab Regional Commission on Human Rights, 316
Permanent Court of Arbitration, 201, 950
Permanent Court of International Justice, 210, 337, 724, 746n., 753, 866n., 867
Permanent Mandates Commission, 492
Persia, 487n., 755n. See also Iran
Personality, 110–12, 445, 727–29;
right of, 853–56
Perspectives, 85;
of participants in world social process, 45–47, 113–19;
in global constitutive process, 179–85, 401–02
Peru, 24n., 490, 880, 950
Philippines, 37n., 563n., 711n.
Piracy, 215, 494
Pluralism, 179, 413–14, 802–03
Poland, 336, 582;
Electoral Law of 1956, 601n.;
1919 Treaty with the League of Nations to protect minorities, 670, 723, 923n., 924n.;
Nationality Act of 1951, 905n.;
denationalization, 908;
1958 Treaty on Nationality with U.S.S.R., 946n.
Policy-oriented approach to inquiry, 83–93, chap. 5 passim
Political parties, 101, 173–74
Pollution, 51
Population explosion, 38–40, 432–33
Portugal, 479, 485n., 490, 542n., 880
Positivist approach to inquiry, 73–75
Potsdam Agreement, 908
Power: definition, 85;
demands, 8–9;
of states, 48–49;
relations with other values, 53–54;
claims, 149–51;
policy preferences, 383–87
—deprivations, 17–22;
in slavery or slave-like practices, 473–74;
in caste societies, 509;
in apartheid, 524–26, 548;
because of race, 573–74;
because of sex, 616–18;
because of religion, 658;
because of non-conforming opinion, 693–94;
because of language, 717–18;
because of alienage, 738–40;
because of age, 782
Preparatory Commission of the United Nations, 321
Prescribing function, 87, 261–77, 320–32;
preferred policy, 406. See also Prescription
Prescription: defined, 87, 263–64;
by agreement, 265–69;
by customary law, 269–77;
role of international governmental organizations, 272–75;
evolution of Universal Declaration, 273–75;
lack of centralized institution for, 276–77;
and global bill of rights, 276, 320–32;
and special interests, 277
Pressure groups, 101–12, 174–75. See also Interests, special
Prisoners of War Convention (Geneva, 1949), 306
Privacy Act of 1974, 857n.
Private associations, 102–06, 175–76
Procedure, principles of, 420–22, 804–05
Proclamation of Teheran, 1968, 22n., 187n., 470n., 536, 567, 643n., 677, 704, 841–42n. See also International Conference on Human Rights (Teheran, 1968)
Promoting function: definition, 87, 256;
in global constitutive process, 256–61;
recommended policy, 406
Property, right to own, 527, 544, 549, 575, 591, 604n., 605, 620–21, 641, 660, 671, 696, 740–41, 742, 746, 757–58, 763
Proportionality, principle of, 804, 813–14
Prostitution, 496, 502, 622, 625–26
Protestantism, 36n., 665–66, 669, 711
Protocol Amending the Slavery Convention, 1953, 497
Protocol Relating to a Certain Case of Statelessness, 1930, 912n., 924, 928
Protocol Relating to Military Obligation in Certain Cases of Double Nationality, 1930, 951
Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1967, 253, 957n.,
Art. 1, 936n.;
Arts. 2 and 3, 253n., 268, 708, 913, 936
Protocol to the Convention against Discrimination in Education, 1962, 567n.
Prussia, 239, 485, 486;
Treaty with U.S., 1785, 670
“Psychic epidemics,” 447
“Public life,” 592–93
Public order, 317, 410, 465, 800–15, 845;
Public order decisions, 87, 162
(p. 1007) “Quiet” diplomacy, 222
Quota system, 574–75, 658, 660
Race, definition of, 569–71, 578–80, 588–89
Race Relations Act of 1968 (U.K.), 602
Racial classification, 523–24, 572–73
Racial discrimination, 322, 569;
value deprivations, 571–77;
justification of, 577–78;
and religious discrimination, 687n. See also Apartheid; Caste
—elimination of: early practice, 581–83;
United Nations developments, 583–99;
International Court of Justice decisions, 599–600;
American Convention, 600;
European Convention, 600;
national decision, 600–05;
centralized structures and procedures, movement towards, 605–11
Rawls’s theory, critique of, 379n., 454n., 458n., 459n., 459–60n., 828n.
Reconstruction, 605
Rectitude, 85;
demands, 13;
transnational interdependence, 52–53;
relations with other values, 62–63;
claims, 157–58;
policy preferences, 398–99
—deprivations, 36–37;
in slavery or slave-like practices, 476;
in caste societies, 511;
in apartheid, 528–29;
because of race, 577;
because of sex, 622–23;
because of religion, 655–58;
because of nonconforming opinion, 697;
because of language, 719;
because of alienage, 742
Red Sea, 494
Reformation, the, 665–66, 711
Refugees, 190, 322, 707–09, 718, 935–40
Regional Conference of NGOs (Buenos Aires, 1972), 227n.
Regulatory code, 831
Religion, freedom of, 36–37, 516, 529, 662, 682, 803. See also Religious discrimination
Religious discrimination, 653–55;
value deprivations, 655–61;
community policies, 661–65
—elimination of: within national communities, 665–68;
early international agreements, 668–71;
League of Nations actions, 671–73;
United Nations actions, 671–84;
regional decisions, 684–87;
future of, 687–89
Reporting system, 252–53, 289, 607–08
Representativeness. See Participation
Resources, 41–44, 132, 433–34
Respect, 85, 426, 451–52;
demands, 7–8;
transnational interdependence, 53;
relations with other values, 55;
claims, 146–49, 455–58;
policy preferences, 381–83, 458–67;
as core value, 451–67
—deprivations, 15–16, 452–54;
in slavery or slave-like practices, 476;
in caste societies, 508–09;
in apartheid, 523–24, 547–48;
because of race, 572–73;
because of sex, 615–16;
because of religion, 661;
because of nonconforming opinion, 697;
because of language, 719–20;
because of alienage, 742;
because of age, 782
Responsibility, policy of, 401
Responsibility of states, customary law of, 181–82, 271–72, 331, 336–38
Restatement of Foreign Relations Law, 750n.
Retirement, compulsory, 780–94
Rhodesia, 213, 231–34, 504, 560n.
Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949, 268;
Art. 15, 363
RIO (Reshaping International Order), 32n., 33n., 49n., 228n., 230n., 433n.
Rockefeller Commission, 20n.
Roman law, 163;
slavery, 478, 483–84;
jus sanguinis, 879
Rome, 163, 208, 471, 478, 720
Roumania, 201;
Peace Treaty of 1947, 201n., 202, 213, 582, 582n.;
Treaty of Berlin, 1878, 669, 672, 673, 723;
1919 Peace Treaty, 723n., 724n., 725;
Trade Agreement with U.S., 726n.;
denationalization of Jews, 907;
1957 Treaty on Nationality with U.S.S.R., 946n.
Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (Canada), 734
Ruanda, 27n.
Ruanda-Urundi, 538n.
Russia, 239, 485, 486. See also Soviet Union
Sanctions, economic, 228, 230–36, 550–60
San Francisco Conference, 1945, 260, 320, 673
Saudi Arabia, 481n., 616n.
Scholars, role of, 368–69
Self-determination, 346, 349
Senegal, 613n.;
Constitution of 1963, 705n.
Serbia, 668
Serfdom, 474, 497
Seventh International Conference of American States (Montevideo, 1933), 751
(p. 1008) Sex-based discrimination, 612–13
—deprivations: women as chattel, 502, 614;
and marriage, 615, 616–17, 620–22;
right to vote and hold office, 616;
in legal rights, 617–18, 620–22;
in education, 618–19;
and childbearing, 619, 622;
in employment/wages, 619–20;
in standard of morality, 622–23;
justifications of, 624–25. See also remedies, below
—remedies: international agreements, 322, 625–44;
national conventions, 644–50;
application of, 650–52
Sharpeville incident, 225, 533
Siam, 490, 670
Sierra Leone, 486n.;
1961 Constitution, 706n.
“Silent” diplomacy, 222
Singapore, 24n.
Skill, 85;
demands, 12;
transnational interdependence, 52;
relations with other values, 59–61;
claims, 155–56;
policy preferences, 395–96
—deprivations, 34;
in slavery or slave-like practices, 475;
in caste societies, 510–11;
in apartheid, 527, 550;
because of race, 575;
because of sex, 620;
because of religion, 660–61;
because of nonconforming opinion, 696;
because of language, 717;
because of alienage, 741
Skinner’s thesis, critique of, 38n.
Slavery: definition, 473–74;
value deprivations, 474–76;
history of, 476–81
—eradication of, 322;
ancient efforts, 482–84;
nineteenth-century international effort to curb slave trade, 484–89;
national abolition movements, 489–91;
League of Nations actions, 491–94;
United Nations actions, 494–501, 502, 503–05, 548;
American Convention, 501–03;
European Convention, 501–03;
future of, 505–08
Slavery Convention, 1926, 492;
Art. 1, 493;
Art. 2, 493;
Art. 3, 595, 597–98;
Art. 5, 493, 595, 597–98
Slave trade, 215, 484–89, 495
Smith Act, 1940, 905, 906
Social origin, 517–20, 584–85, 600, 601
Social process, definition of, 84–86, 94–95
Social science approach to inquiry, 80–82
Somalia, 706n.
South Africa, 24n., 194n., 213, 224–25, 232–34, 325, 335, 347, 533–60, 564, 596, 599, 884n. See also Apartheid
South East Asia, 476n., 562n.
South West Africa. See Namibia
Sovereign immunity, 216
Soviet Union, 78n., 126n., 127n., 201, 243, 519, 950;
revolution, 3, 668, 904;
dissidents, 15n., 17n., 25n., 695, 893, 919–20n.;
religious freedom in, 18n., 656n., 657n., 668;
censorship in, 23–24n., 25n., 25–26n., 60n., 120–21n., 122n.;
Russian wives case (1948), 213, 330;
women’s rights in, 648–49;
linguistic conflict in, 715n.;
mass denationalization, 901, 904–05, 911, 914, 936;
bilateral nationality treaties, 946. See also Russia
Spain, 479, 485n., 711n., 876, 880
Special Claims Commission between the United States and Mexico, 1931, 921
Special Committee on Apartheid, 189, 234, 535, 534n., 551n., 552, 554n., 555, 559, 584
Special interests. See Interests
Special Rapporteur on Slavery. See Awad’s Report on Slavery
Sri Lanka. See Ceylon
Statelessness. See Nationality, statelessness
“Statement on Cultural Rights as Human Rights,” 835–37
State-to-state complaint, 206–07, 279–81, 358, 608–09, 956
Strategies: concept, 85;
in social process, 135–38;
in global constitutive process, 219–47;
preferred policy, 403–04
Stratification, 109–10, 522–23, 661, 719–20
Structures of authority. See Arenas
Sudan: Nationality Act of 1957, 884n., 896
Supervisory code, 831
Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, 1956: Preamble, 479;
Art. 1, 497, 498;
Art. 3, 498;
Art. 4, 498;
Art. 8, 253n., 267, 305;
Art. 10, 200, 253
Surveillance. See Privacy
Sweden, 197n., 281, 298n., 485n., 546n., 610n., 613n., 670, 891n., 941n.
Switzerland, 197n., 298n., 615n., 854, 873, 892, 910n., 914;
Peaces of Kappel of 1529 and 1531, 665;
Swiss Nationality Act, 1952, 892n.
Syntactic derivation. See Logical (syntactic) derivation
Syria, 239, 611n., 884n.
(p. 1009) Taiwan, 17n., 659n., 670, 693n., 715n., 873
Tanzania (Tanganyika), 538n.;
1962 Constitution, 706n.
Technology, 133–34, 434–35, 439, 688, 736, 858–59
Temporal dimension of human rights deprivations, 120, 121–23
Temporary Slavery Commission, 492
Terminating function: definition, 88, 299–300;
in global constitutive process, 300–07;
and global bill of rights, 360–63;
preferred policy, 407–08
Territorial change, 884–85, 923
Terrorism, 16, 106–07, 137–38, 548, 819
Thailand, 17n., 20n., 21n., 25n., 711n., 884n.
Third-party decision-making. See Arbitration
Third World, 23n., 169, 229–30
Thirty Years’ War, 164, 668
Tibet, 27n., 213, 830
Togoland, 538n.;
1963 Constitution, 706n.
Toleration, religious, 654–55, 665–66
Torture, 21, 28, 255, 528, 574, 576, 695
Totalitarianism, 21, 36, 170, 563, 818–19
Transylvania, Principality of, 666
Treaty. See International agreement; individual treaties
Treaty of Augsburg, 1555, 666n.
Treaty of Berlin, 1878, 669, 670
Treaty of Friendship and Establishment between Egypt and Persia, 1928, 755n.
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, 1954, 756
Treaty of London, 1841, 486
Treaty of Paris, 1814, 484
Treaty of Paris, 1831, 485
Treaty of Peace with Bulgaria, 1947, 673n.
Treaty of Peace with Finland, 1947, 673n.
Treaty of Peace with Hungary, 1947, 673n.
Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947, 674n.
Treaty of Peace with Romania, 1947, 673n.
Treaty of Rome, 1958, 644
Treaty of St. Germain, 1919, 943n.
Treaty of Trianon, 1920, 943n.
Treaty of Versailles, 1919, 336, 672–73;
Art. 278, 943n.;
Art. 427, 626
Treaty of Washington, 1862, 486
Treaty of Westphalia, 1648, 668, 670
Tripartite (United States-Austro-Hungarian) Claims Commission, 950
Trusteeship system, 538, 610
Tunisia, 210, 490
Turkey, 29n., 37n., 197n., 240, 281, 487n., 672;
humanitarian intervention against, 582;
Treaty of Berlin, 1878, 669;
1923 Treaty, 723;
denationalization, 905, 911, 948;
nationality, 949
Twentieth Century Fund, 619n.
Uganda, 245;
1962 Constitution, 601n., 706n.
UNESCO Protocol Instituting a Conciliation and Good Offices Commission in Relation to the Convention against Discrimination in Education, 1962, 280
United Kingdom. See Great Britain
United Nations, 100, 171–72, 212, 306–07, 654, 658, 883
—Charter, 100, 103n., 104n., 106n., 120n., 127n., 165, 169n., 171, 174, 179–82, 210, 302–03, 323–25, 410n., 413, 441n., 495, 517, 521n., 522n., 524n., 527n., 528n., 532, 533n., 535, 585, 587, 610, 613n., 614n., 615, 616n., 618n., 620n., 621n., 622n., 625n., 673, 673n., 674, 677, 680, 694n., 695n., 702, 707, 725n., 741n., 759, 764, 765n., 766, 786, 787, 823, 832, 842n., 909, 912n., 916, 925–26, 956;
Preamble, 228, 241n., 302, 320n., 324, 325, 328, 330–31, 346, 356, 468n., 473n., 484n., 626;
Art. 1, 241n., 302, 320n., 324, 325, 328, 330, 331, 333, 336, 346, 356, 495, 499, 503, 507, 626, 702n., 707, 725n., 741n., 759, 765n.;
Art. 3, 495, 499, 503, 507;
Art. 6, 555n., 561, 562n.;
Art. 8, 627, 628n., 630, 631n., 643n., 648n., 651n.;
Art. 13, 241n., 250, 258, 302, 320n., 324–31, 564n., 575n., 577n., 583, 626, 702n., 707, 725n., 741, 759, 765n.;
Art. 15, 309, 310, 315n., 317, 320;
Art. 17, 309, 310, 315n., 317, 320;
Art. 24, 309, 310, 315n., 317, 320, 333, 336;
Art. 33, 205, 206, 289n., 290n.;
Art. 43, 237n., 238;
Art. 45, 237n., 238;
Art. 46, 237n., 238;
Art. 47, 237n., 238;
Art. 55, 180n., 241n., 302, 320n., 324–36, 468, 495n., 499n., 503, 507, 564n., 575n., 577n., 583, 626, 702n., 707, 725n., 741, 759, 765n.;
Art. 56, 241, 302, 320n., 324–36, 495n., 564n., 575n., 577n., 583, 626;
Art. 62, 241, 250, 251, 302, 309–10, 315n., 317, 320, 324–31, 495, 499n., 503, 507, 564n., 575n., 577n., 583, 626, 765;
Art. 64, 296, 309, 310, 315n., 317, 320;
Art. 68, 258;
Art. 71, 259, 260n., (p. 1010) 268, 272–77, 282–83;
Art. 73, 252n., 254–56;
Art. 76, 241n., 320, 324–31, 495, 499n., 503, 507, 564n., 575n., 577n., 583, 626, 702n., 707, 725n., 741n., 759, 765n.;
Art. 77, 538n., 539n., 551;
Art. 87, 193–95, 202, 204, 252n., 254n., 255, 256n., 309–10, 315n., 317, 320;
Art. 88, 252–55, 256n., 309, 310, 315n., 317, 320;
Art. 90, 193–95, 202–04;
Art. 98, 309–10, 315n., 317, 320;
Art. 103, 332, 338, 339;
Art. 108, 303, 361, 392;
Art. 109, 303
—Economic and Social Council, 174, 189, 194, 228, 250–52, 255, 258–60, 296, 304, 309–10, 313, 323, 496, 503, 506–07, 551, 650–51, 678, 765n., 913n., 925, 931;
Res. 728F, 195, 288;
Res. 1235, 194;
Res. 1237, 288;
Res. 1503, 194–95;
Res. 1695, 504–05
—General Assembly, 202;
expanding authority, 171;
Third Committee, 188, 195n., 274n., 519, 586, 589n., 590n., 766n.;
as parliamentary arena, 188–89;
and racial discrimination, 189, 533–48, 550–60, 586, 589n., 590n., 598;
and arbitral procedure, 203–04;
and prescribing function, 267–68, 272–77, 291, 356–57;
and establishment of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, 287–89;
and appraising function, 309;
legal character of G.A. resolutions, 272–77, 325–32;
and terminating function, 362;
and the aged, 786–89;
and privacy, 841–42;
and statelessness, 894n., 913n. See also individual conventions and declarations
—Secretariat, 173n., 190, 251, 260, 309, 314n., 551, 819, 947n.
—Secretary-General, 190, 141n., 224, 296, 361, 823, 931;
and appraising function, 309–10;
annual reports, 224, 309–10;
memorandum on slavery, 484n., note on aliens, 765n.;
report on privacy, 823n., 842n.
—Security Council, 171, 189, 291, 335, 356–57;
efforts to combat apartheid, 232–34, 533–60;
and the Bangladesh case, 243–45;
veto in the amending procedure, 302–04;
enlargement of, 303–04;
Res. 181 (1963), 554;
Res. 191 (1964), 535;
Res. 264 (1969), 540;
Res. 276 (1970), 540;
Res. 282 (1970), 555
—Trusteeship Council, 189, 192, 193, 538, 610
United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 177, 191, 288, 503, 482n., 925;
individual petitions, 192–96, 279, 282–83, 356, 358, 507, 774;
studies, 251–52;
reporting system, 252–53, 310, 545;
and “International Bill of Human Rights,” 321–22;
and Declaration and Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 586–87;
United Nations Conference-Exposition on Human Settlements (Vancouver, 1976), 188
United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons (Geneva, 1951), 708n., 913n.
United Nations Conference on Freedom of Information, 1948, 277n.
United Nations Conference on Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972), 188, 311
United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (Geneva, 1958), 204
United Nations Conference on the Law of Treaties, Second Session (Vienna, 1969), 346n., 352n.
United Nations Conference on the Status of Stateless Persons (New York, 1954), 913n.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 228, 251
United Nations Council for Namibia, 192–94, 537n., 560n.
United Nations Development Decade, 226
United Nations Development Program (UNDP), 228, 251
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 4n., 22n., 172, 189, 190, 251, 268, 280, 376n., 461n., 504n., 518n., 521n., 526n., 532n., 556, 569, 584, 588, 618n., 634n., 701n., 715n., 835, 837n.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 252
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, proposed, 286–89, 358–59, 440
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 190, 252, 504n., 707, 869n., 912, 931n., 936, 957
(p. 1011) United Nations Institute for Teaching and Research (UNITAR), 169n., 171n., 276n., 314n.
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), 172
United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), 190n.
United Nations Report on Privacy, 823, 823n., 841n., 842n., 844n., 854n., 856
United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, 191, 194–95, 282–83, 356, 503, 585–86, 677–78, 706–07, 765n., 774
United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa, 553
United States, 127n., 201–02, 218n., 257, 260, 315, 351, 479, 545, 631, 645;
human rights policy, 234–35, 312–13;
and slavery, 484–87;
prohibition of racial discrimination, 602–05;
equality of the sexes, 645–48;
religious freedom, 666–67, 670–71;
freedom of expression, 699–701;
bilingual education, 735;
and aliens, 754–56;
protection for aged, 789–96;
protection of right of privacy, 845–53
—Congress, 14n., 57n., 234–35, 312–13, 602–04, 711n., 780n., 789–90, 885–87, 890, 898, 909n.
—Constitution, 68n., 320, 331–32, 887, 918–19;
preamble, 853;
Art. VI, 666;
Bill of Rights, 850;
First Amendment, 666–67, 670, 791, 846, 848, 850;
Third Amendment, 846, 848;
Fourth Amendment, 845, 846, 848, 850;
Fifth Amendment, 647, 790, 791, 845, 846, 848, 850;
Eighth Amendment, 901–02, 906;
Ninth Amendment, 833, 846, 848, 850;
Thirteenth Amendment, 490n., 604n.;
Fourteenth Amendment, 647, 791–93, 846–847, 848, 850, 853, 890n., 909n.
—Department of State, 14n., 84n., 234–35, 243, 312–13, 874
—nationality law and decisions: disposition of the Flegenheimer case, 873–75;
naturalization, 885–88;
and voluntary expatriation, 889–92;
withdrawal of nationality with consent, 895–900;
withdrawal of nationality as punishment, 901–03, 905–06;
and statelessness, 914–15;
condemnation of denationalization, 918–19
United States Commission on Civil Rights, 573n.
United States-German Mixed Claims Commission, 868
United States-Mexican Claims Commission, 754
Uniting for Peace Resolution, 303n., 328
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 62, 90, 179, 180, 212, 225, 241, 259, 282–83, 302, 315–17, 321, 350, 413, 598, 678–80;
legal effect of, 272–74, 325–27, 328–30;
Preamble, 468–69n.;
Art. 3, 767n., 786;
Art. 4, 495, 496n., 517, 708;
Art. 5, 767n., 786, 909n., 918;
Art. 7, 565, 584–85, 587, 592–95, 628, 703, 705, 930n., 954n.;
Art. 8, 726, 728;
Art. 9, 703, 705;
Art. 10, 726, 728, 767n., 786;
Art. 12, 726, 728, 840, 888;
Art. 13, 767n., 786, 894, 895, 909;
Art. 14, 709, 725, 894, 895, 909;
Art. 15, 925, 927, 930;
Art. 17, 767n., 786;
Art. 18, 674, 685, 726, 728;
Art. 19, 726, 728;
Art. 20, 834;
Art. 21, 471, 473, 767;
Art. 22, 833;
Art. 23, 787;
Art. 25, 788;
Art. 26, 674, 726, 728;
Art. 27, 726, 728, 833;
Art. 28, 806, 832;
Art. 29, 806, 807–08;
Art. 30, 806, 807–08
Universal Postal Union (UPU), 172, 556
Untouchables, 509, 515–16, 720
Upper Volta, 706n.
Urban culture, 108–09, 424–28, 436, 438
Uruguay, 287, 711n.
Vatican II Council, 1965: Declaration of Religious Freedom, 685–86
Vattel’s innovation, 221, 746–48, 773–74, 867
Venezuela, 490, 884n.
Vienna Congress, 164, 485
Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963, 205
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961, 205
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969: Art. 2, 265;
Art. 27, 352;
Art. 53, 344–46, 360–61, 417n.;
Art. 56, 304;
Art. 64, 344–46, 417n.;
Arts. 54–64, 299n.;
Art. 66, 205–06;
Annex, 205–06
Vienna Declaration on Slavery, 1815, 485
(p. 1012) Vietnam, 17n., 54n.;
Buddhist-Catholic conflict, 563n., 574, 711n.
Violence, expectations of, 46–47, 118, 439, 690, 817–19, 858. See also Terrorism
Vote, right to, 17, 518, 524, 573, 591, 602, 603, 616, 630, 637–38, 645, 658, 717, 738, 743, 768, 773
Voting Rights Act of 1965, 602, 603
War crimes. See Holocaust; Nuremberg tribunal
“Wars of redistribution,” 43
Watergate syndrome, 19n., 131n., 823n.
Wealth, 85;
demands, 11;
transnational interdependence, 49–51;
relations with other values, 58–59;
claims, 154–55;
policy preferences, 393–95
—deprivations, 31–34;
in slavery or slave-like practices, 474;
in caste societies, 511;
in apartheid, 527, 550;
because of race, 575;
because of sex, 619–21;
because of religion, 660–61;
because of nonconforming opinion, 696;
because of language, 718–19;
because of alienage, 740–41;
because of age, 780–81
Welfare state, 5, 819
Well-being, 85;
demands, 10–11;
transnational interdependence, 51;
relations with other values, 57–58;
claims, 152–54;
policy preferences, 389–92
—deprivations, 26–30;
in slavery or slave-like practices, 474–75;
in caste societies, 510;
in apartheid, 528, 547–48;
because of race, 576;
because of sex, 619;
because of religion, 659–60;
because of nonconforming opinion, 695;
because of language, 718;
because of alienage, 742;
because of age, 781–82
West Indies, 479
Westphalia, 163–64, 270, 668–69
Workers’ Representatives Convention, 1971, 269;
Art. 13, 363;
Art. 19, 305n.
World Conference on the Environment, 311
World Conference on the International Women’s Year (Mexico City, 1975), 188, 226n., 311, 634n.
World Council of Churches, 36n., 176;
Declaration of Religious Liberty, 1949, 686
World Food Conference (Rome, 1974), 51n., 188, 312
World Health Organization (WHO), 134n., 172;
World Health Assembly, 189, 556;
Secretariat, 190, 252, 391n., 393n.;
Constitution, 557, 783n.
World Jewish Congress, 174
World Population Conference (Bucharest, 1974), 188, 312
World Population Year (1974), 226
World public opinion, 219, 223–27, 447
World Refugee Year (1959–60), 226
World War II: peace treaties, 673
Yalta Conference, 538n.
Ya-tow, 476n.
Yemen, 616n.
Younger Report, 816n., 856n., 857n.
Yugoslavia, 36n., 109n.;
Serb-Croat-Slovene State, 582, 672, 715n.;
Treaty with Serb-Croat-Slovene State, 1919, 723;
Nationality Act of 1946, 905n.;
denationalization, 908;
Treaty on Nationality with U.S.S.R., 1956, 946n.
Zambia: 1964 Constitution, 601n., 706n.
Zanzibar, 487n., 488, 489
Zimbabwe-Rhodesia. See Rhodesia
Zionism Resolution, 235, 235–36n., 687n.