1 Maritime transport refers to the carriage of goods and passengers by sea. Freight transport is especially essential for global trade. According to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (‘OECD’) data, approximately 90% of the global freight is carried by sea. In the European Union (‘EU’), 77% of external trade and 35% of intra-EU trade is transported via sea carriage (European Maritime Transport Environmental Report 2021, 11). 2 Carriage of goods by sea is facilitated either through liner or tramp shipping. In liner shipping, ships operate on a...
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full
to access all content.