1 The notion of an ‘umpire’ (French: surarbitre) in dispute resolution between public (and private; see below) parties can be traced back in Europe to the development of dispute settlement procedures in the Late Middle Ages. These proceedings were conducted by persons designated by the two parties, on the basis of parity (usually two persons, sometimes four). These ‘arbitrators’ were not necessarily independent from the parties and would often not be able to agree on a decision, thus preventing a solution to the dispute. For such situations the practice was...
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