1 Fraud can be defined as a ‘knowing misrepresentation of the truth or concealment of a material fact to induce another to act to his or her detriment’ (Llamzon and Sinclair, 2015, 469). In investment arbitration (Investment Disputes), fraud can be raised as a defence by states in defending claims against investors for misrepresentations in relation to an investment (Lamm and others, 2010, 699), or where a party submits false documents or misleads the tribunal. 2 This entry will focus on the latter situation, fraudulent evidence, which embraces fraudulent...
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