1 On 1 October 2018, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) decided on the case Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia v Chile), finding that Chile was not under an obligation to negotiate Bolivia’s sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean. In its judgment, the ICJ dealt with some of the main sources of obligations in international law and took a stand on the legal regime of unilateral acts, estoppel, and legitimate expectations (Unilateral Acts of States in International Law). The case originated when, on 24 April 2013, Bolivia filed an...
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