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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia v Chile)

Caterina Milo

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved.date: 09 May 2021

Good faith — Legitimate expectations — Sovereignty — Estoppel — Unilateral acts

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 On 1 October 2018, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) decided on the case Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia v Chile), finding that Chile was not under an obligation to negotiate Bolivia’s sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean. In its judgment, the ICJ dealt with some of the main sources of obligations in international law and took a stand on the legal regime of unilateral acts, estoppel, and legitimate expectations (Unilateral Acts of States in International Law). The case originated when, on 24 April 2013, Bolivia filed an...
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