Christos Kypraios, Elena Carpanelli
- Spacecraft, satellites, and space objects — Pollution
Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law under the direction of Rüdiger Wolfrum.
1 One of the direct consequences of human activities in outer space is the creation of space debris. In the most general terms, these pieces of debris are uncontrollable man-made objects in the Earth’s orbit, including satellites that are no longer functional; mission related objects, such as tools lost by astronauts during extravehicular activities; and the result of satellite fragmentation events, which can be either accidental—such as in the case of non-deliberate in-orbit collisions—or intentional—such as in the case of anti-satellite weapons tests or...