Part X The protection of individuals and groups, 28 The international minimum standard: Diplomatic protection and protection of investments
James Crawford SC, FBA
- 4283e9f9-e10d-4bba-85ef-f215bff574d4 — BITs (Bilateral Investment Treaties) — State succession, state property and contracts — Aliens, treatment — Expulsion — d86edf29-ba9f-4a57-baa5-e762946835a0 — Immigration — International minimum standard — Fair and equitable treatment standard — Expropriation
This chapter considers two discrete streams of authority – one based on the practice and jurisprudence of diplomatic protection, the other based on the generic standards in over 2,500 bilateral and multilateral investment treaties, as applied in some hundreds of tribunal decisions. The discussions cover the admission, expulsion, and liabilities of aliens; requirements for and standards of diplomatic protection; and breach and annulment of state contracts.