- Peremptory norms / ius cogens — Responsibility of states — Responsibility of individuals — Responsibility of international organizations — Countermeasures — Erga omnes obligations
International law has remained imprecise with respect to the scope and consequences of serious, systemic illegality, but there have been developments that have made collective action under law possible. The chapter reviews the objective consequences of illegal acts, covering peremptory norms (ius cogens), the obligation not to recognize a situation as lawful, and the obligation of putting an end to an unlawful situation.
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