When societies or their governments have confronted perceived threats to their security, the typical reaction has been to eliminate the threat by removing those thought to represent it. Historically, the methods of removal have been deprivation of life, exile, or deprivation of liberty. As formal measures, the first two of these have gradually fallen into disuse, albeit summary killings continue to take place surreptitiously, and the judicial death penalty is still retained in some societies despite a rapid decline in the last half century. Also many refugees can...
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