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European Citizenship »

Armin von Bogdandy, Felix Arndt
1 European citizenship is part of the project to create and fortify a European identity, and this identity is meant to strengthen Europe as an international actor. The first political initiatives that focus on a ‘Europe of citizens’ can be traced back to 1969. The idea of a European identity strengthening Europe internationally received an important uplift by the Declaration on European Identity, done in December 1973 by the Heads of State or Government of the then nine European Community Member States. Since then, this project was pursued by various means which...

Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) »

Felix Arndt
1 The Inter-Parliamentary Union (‘IPU’) is the oldest organization of parliamentary co-operation. Originally founded in 1889 as a private association of parliamentarians, mainly from France and Great Britain, it has developed into an international association of national Parliaments. Its headquarters have been located in Geneva since 1921. A status agreement with the Swiss Federal Council was concluded in 1971.2 Traditionally, one of the central focuses of the organization has been the promotion of international arbitration as a means of the peaceful settlement of...

Parliamentary Assemblies, International »

Felix Arndt
1 Conventionally, international parliamentary assemblies have been defined as those organs of international organizations composed of parliamentarians. Their main purpose is to facilitate parliamentary supervision of intergovernmental decision-making processes. A special type of an international parliamentary assembly is formed by assemblies that themselves constitute an independent international organization. An example is the Latin American Parliament. Parliamentary assemblies can also be established by association or cooperation agreements, such as the...

Peace Settlements after World War II »

Felix Arndt
1 While the concept of a formal state of war has lost its significance in international law and has been replaced by the notion of armed conflict (Armed Conflict, International), the transition after an armed conflict remains a complex issue. Peace is not established immediately after the cessation of hostilities. Rather the end of fighting marks the beginning of a process that hopefully leads to a sustainable and peaceful arrangement. With respect to the settlement of issues arising out of a war, two types of development can be distinguished. First, these issues...

Tehran Conference (1943) »

Felix Arndt
1 The Tehran Conference was held in the Iranian capital between 28 November and 1 December 1943. Participants were the President of the United States Franklin D Roosevelt, Soviet Prime Minister Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, accompanied, inter alia, by their respective advisers Harry Hopkins, Vyacheslav Molotov, and Anthony Eden. It was the first tripartite meeting at the level of the Heads of Government of the three major Allies. At the same time, the Tehran Conference provided the framework for the first personal encounter of...