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Corruption, Fight against »

Kenneth W Abbott
1 The fight against corruption has produced a remarkable cascade of international rule-making since the early 1990s. It includes a true multilateral convention as well as numerous regional and plurilateral treaties, soft law instruments, and policies. These instruments address a broad range of conduct and prescribe varied State measures; some have robust implementation mechanisms. While there remain significant substantive gaps, the principal challenge today is to ensure adoption of, and compliance with, the existing legal and normative framework.2 In the early...

Public Private Partnership »

Kenneth W Abbott
1 The terms ‘partnership’ and ‘public private partnership’ (‘PPP’) have varied meanings in international policy. Some usages are broad: the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (‘Rio Declaration’; Stockholm Declaration [1972] and Rio Declaration [1992]) and the United Nations (‘UN’) Millennium Declaration (United Nations, Millennium Declaration) call for a ‘global partnership’ among States, civil society, and the private sector (see also Corporations in International Law). Other usages are narrow: many governments and development agencies, such as the...