1 On the origins and development of the European Union, see D Dinan, Europe Recast: A History of the European Union (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004). For the wider historical and political context, see T Judt, Postwar: A History of Europe since 1945 (William Heinemann, 2005).
2 For text of the Schuman Declaration see <http://www.europa.eu/abc/symbols> or P Stirk and D Weigall (eds), The Origins and Development of European Integration: A Reader and Commentary (Pinter: London, 1999).
3 See J Touchard, Le gaullisme 1940–1969 (Paris: Seuil, collection Points, 1978).
4 The Treaty of Rome, or Treaty Establishing the European Community, is cited in references below as the ‘TEC’.
5 Quoted in P M W Thody, Europe Since 1945 (Routledge, 2000) 171. The words attributed to the official, Russell Bretherton, are probably apocryphal.
6 Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union. The ‘Copenhagen criteria’, laid down by the European Council in Copenhagen in 1993, also set out political and economic criteria for accession such as a functioning market economy.
7 The Schengen Agreement (1985) and Convention (1990), were originally concluded and developed by some Member States outside the framework of the European Communities and provided for abolition of internal frontier controls.
8 At the time of writing, it was proposed to submit the Lisbon Treaty, accompanied by certain ‘guarantees’, to a further referendum in Ireland.
9 Including what is now Article 308 TEC providing for the adoption of measures ‘necessary to attain, in the course of the operation of the common market, one of the objectives of the Community’ where the Treaty has not provided the necessary powers.
10 Article 1, Treaty on European Union.
11 ‘Delors Calls Latest EC Plan Crippling’, International Herald Tribune, 21 November 1991. Also quoted in D Buchan, Europe—The Strange Superpower (Vermont: Dartmouth, 1993).
12 As noted at paragraph 26.21 above, at the time of writing it remains uncertain whether the Lisbon Treaty will enter into force. This chapter therefore sets out the position under the unamended EU Treaties and notes separately any changes which would be made by the Lisbon Treaty.
13 Case C26/62, Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen  ECR 1 at 12.
14 ‘One can readily make speeches about a supranational Europe; it’s not difficult—it’s easy to be a jackass’ (author’s translation). De Gaulle was speaking at a reception at the Elysée Palace, 10 June 1965. Cited in Touchard, Le gaullisme 1940–1969, 218.
15 On the EU’s institutions and decision-making process see Y Devuyst, The European Union Transformed: Community Method and Institutional Evolution from the Schuman Plan to the Constitution for Europe, (Brussels: PIE-Peter Lang, 2005); H Wallace and W Wallace (eds), Policy-Making in the European Union (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000); and M Cini (ed), European Union Politics (2nd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). On the EU’s legal framework, and EU law generally, see A Dashwood, D Wyatt, et al, European Union Law (5th edn, Sweet & Maxwell, 2006), and P Craig and G de Búrca, EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials (4th edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). The European Union portal at <http://www.europa.eu/index_en.htm> provides links to detailed information and documentation on the operation, policies, and structures of the EU institutions.
17 For a list of these agencies and their responsibilities see <http://www.europa.eu/agencies/index_en.htm>. See also A Ott, EU Regulatory Agencies in EU External Relations: Trapped in a Legal Minefield Between European and International Law’ (2008) EFAR 515.
19 ‘Coreper’ is one of the numerous acronyms to be found across the European Union. It comes from the French name for the Committee—Comité des représentants permanents.
20 There were widespread reports of an exchange at the October 2002 European Council between UK Prime Minister Blair and French President Chirac. Blair asked ‘How can you defend the common agricultural policy and then claim to be a supporter of aid to Africa? Failing to reform the CAP means being responsible for the starvation of the world’s poor.’ Chirac responded ‘You have been very badly brought up. No one has ever spoken to me like that before.’ Quoted in The Guardian, 5 April 2002.
21 Sometimes referred to by the French term ‘infractions’.
26 See R Corbett, F Jacobs, and M Shackleton (eds), The European Parliament (London: John Harper, 2003) and D Judge and D Earnshaw, The European Parliament (2nd edn, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).
27 The formula devised by the nineteenth century Belgian political scientist Victor d’Hondt to ensure an equitable distribution of posts reflecting the weight of the largest groups while also protecting smaller groups.
28 The co-decision procedure is set out in Article 251 TEC.
30 ‘This entire debate has represented a coming of age, a new maturity in understanding its [the EP’s] democratic rights and in its capacity to empower itself to act in the public interest.’ Pat Cox, leader of the ELDR and later EP Parliament speaking in the March 1999 debate on the Commission’s resignation. Quoted in The Independent, 16 January 2002.
31 On this episode, see P Craig,‘The Fall and Renewal of the Commission: Accountability, Contract and Administrative Organisation’ (2000) 6 ELJ (2000) 6.
32 A point which would be explicitly underlined by new provisions introduced by the Lisbon Treaty (as Article 10 of the TEU).
34 Under the Lisbon Treaty, the Court of First Instance would also be renamed the ‘General Court’.
35 See the Courts’ annual reports at <http://www.curia.europa.eu>. The Courts judgments, opinions, and other decisions are also available at this site.
36 See Article 230.4 TEC.
38 See, eg, J Weiler, ‘The Court of Justice on Trial’ (1987) 24 CMLR 555; P Neill, ‘European Court of Justice: a case study in judicial activism’ (1995) European Policy Forum; and T Tridimas, ‘The Court of Justice and Judicial Activism’ (1996) ELR 21. See also the Report of the House of Lords Select Committee on the European Union on ‘The Future Role of the European Court of Justice’. 6th Report, 2003–04, HL 47.
40 Separate financing arrangements have been established in a very few cases, notably the European Development Fund for funding cooperation with African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries.
41 See Articles 268–80 TEC.
43 For the Own Resources Decision in force from 2007 see Council Decision 2007/436/EC, Euratom published in the Official Journal at OJ L163/17, 23/06/2007.
44 M Butler, Europe: More than a Continent (London: Heinemann, 1988).