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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]


Thomas Giegerich

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 13 July 2024

Countermeasures — Acts of international organizations — Representation of states in international organizations — Wrongful acts — Reprisals

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 At one time the term retorsion was used in a broad sense including all forms of retaliation by one State against another for all kinds of unwelcome acts by the latter. Today, retorsion covers only those reactions which do not interfere with the target State’s rights under international law. Reactions which do are nowadays termed reprisals or, in the usage of the International Law Commission (ILC)’s Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (‘Draft Articles’) of 2001, countermeasures. These are only permissible in response to an...
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