1 According to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), nearly eight million children died in 2010 before reaching the age of five, largely due to preventable causes such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, and birth complications (State of the World’s Children Report 2012 14). Millions of others are engaged in the worst forms of child labour, including active participation in hostilities (Children and Armed Conflict). These, and other children in difficult situations, need protection. In this contribution the term ‘children’ refers to persons below the age of 18....
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