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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]


David Weissbrodt†

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 03 March 2024

Ancient Times to 1648 — Freedom from slavery or forced labour — International labour law — Rights holders

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 In the 19th century a person was considered a slave if another individual exercised power or control over the slave to restrain his or her personal liberty (Liberty, Right to, International Protection) and to dispose of the slave’s labour against his or her will, without lawful authority (see also Forced Labour/Slave Labour). The Slavery Convention of 1926 (‘Convention’) refined in its Art. 1 (1) the 19th century definition, designating slavery as ‘the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are...
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