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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

European Citizenship

Armin von Bogdandy, Felix Arndt

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved.date: 14 August 2020

Citizenship — Nationality of individuals

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law under the direction of Rüdiger Wolfrum.

1 European citizenship is part of the project to create and fortify a European identity, and this identity is meant to strengthen Europe as an international actor. The first political initiatives that focus on a ‘Europe of citizens’ can be traced back to 1969. The idea of a European identity strengthening Europe internationally received an important uplift by the Declaration on European Identity, done in December 1973 by the Heads of State or Government of the then nine European Community Member States. Since then, this project was pursued by various means which...
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