1 The Lieber Code is sometimes referred to as the first modern codification of the laws of war (Humanitarian Law, International). Promulgated at the height of the American Civil War (1861–65), it proposed a set of rules to govern the conduct of hostilities by the United States armies (‘Union’ or ‘North’) against the Confederate States of America (‘Confederacy’ or ‘South’). Named after its main author, Francis Lieber, the Code regulated a variety of legal issues, in particular the interplay between military necessity and the principle of humanity (Humanity,...
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