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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

Orange River

George (Rock) Pring, Matthew S Abosedra

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 26 February 2024

Indigenous peoples — Sustainable development — Climate change — Canals — Rivers — Marine environment, protection

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 The Orange River, the most developed international watercourse in the southern Africa region, is rapidly running out of sufficient water, despite having some of the world’s largest water projects (International Watercourses). Water scarcity, out-of-basin diversions, and unequal distribution of water resources increasingly inhibit agricultural, municipal, and industrial sustainable development in the region (Heyns 1). Factors contributing to water stress include the arid/semi-arid climate, high population growth, increasing urbanization, South Africa’s hydrologic...
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