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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]


Björn Ahl

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 22 February 2024

Sovereignty — Jurisdiction of states, territoriality principle — Jurisdiction of states, conflicts — Boundaries — Intellectual property — Natural resources — Specialized treaty frameworks — Developing countries

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 For many centuries China was a leading civilization, outpacing other countries in terms of economic power and cultural and scientific development. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, China was afflicted by civil wars, famine, military defeat, and foreign occupation. The last Chinese civil war resulted in two political entities using the name China (Chinese: Zhongguo, meaning ‘Middle Kingdom’): the People’s Republic of China (‘PRC’) and the Republic of China (‘ROC’; see Divided States). The PRC administers mainland China and, since 1997 and 1999 respectively,...
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