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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

Expropriation and Nationalization

Alice Ruzza

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 27 September 2023

Expropriation — Property — Arbitration

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1The law of expropriation and nationalization in times of peace developed in consonance with the evolution of the status of aliens in the host State. Until the 18th century, varying rules and standards applied to aliens in host States (History of International Law, Ancient Times to 1648; History of International Law, 1648 to 1815); progressively, however, protection was afforded to foreigners and their property, and in the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century various treaties incorporated the principle of equal protection of alien property (Hague Peace...
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