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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]


James Crawford†

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 03 March 2024

Self-determination — Sovereignty — Customary international law — States, equality — Recognition of states — States, independence

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 International law originated amongst the States of Europe following the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 (Westphalia, Peace of [1648]; Westphalian System). Though international law now extends to all regions, and, in various circumstances, applies directly to individuals, private organizations, and public international organizations (Non-State Actors), States retain a special importance in the international legal system. Some precision as to the characteristics that make an entity a State for purposes of international law is necessary. 2 The following exclusive and...
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