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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

Heads of State

Sir Arthur Watts†, Joanne Foakes

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 04 February 2023

Heads of state and other senior officials — Immunity from jurisdiction, states — Comity — Sovereignty — States, equality — Recognition of states — Territory, non-self-governing

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 All independent State[s] normally have a Head of State. Exceptions are temporary and due to extraordinary circumstances, as with a State defeated in an armed conflict, or where the State’s governmental structure has collapsed (Failing States). 2 The nature of the office of Head of State is a matter for each State to determine for itself although occasionally the maintenance of a particular form of constitutional structure is the subject of a treaty obligation (Peace Treaties). Each State also determines whether its Head exercises substantive executive powers of...
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