1 On the eve of World War I, the Levant, including what would become Mandate Palestine and, later, Israel, had been part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire for almost four centuries, and was experiencing the first stirrings of Arab nationalism. The small intellectual class—led by teachers, artists, army officers, and writers—were issuing appeals for greater autonomy for the Arab provinces. According to the 1914 Ottoman census, the population of Palestine was approximately 690,000 inhabitants, 85–90% of whom were Palestinian Arabs; they were predominately Muslim, with a...
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