1 Antarctica was only discovered in 1773 by Captain Cook, who first crossed the southern polar circle searching for the terra australis. It constitutes about 9% of the Earth’s landmass and almost 14 million square kilometres of its surface. Approximately 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice, which has a thickness of up to almost 4,800 metres; its average thickness is 2,300 metres. The mean temperature lies between 0° (summer, coast) and -68° (winter, plateau) Centigrade—depending on the season and location.2 Antarctica does not have an indigenous population....
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