1 Inaccessible peripheral location, rugged terrain, and relative lack of natural resources have considerably encumbered State-building in Afghanistan. For most of its modern history since 1747 it has thus been defined primarily as a ‘buffer State’ separating the Russian and British empires. In the 19th and 20th centuries the exceedingly weak central State repeatedly attempted ambitious modernization efforts that faltered on its insufficient institutional strength and the massive resistance of an extremely conservative rural population. Competing outside powers...
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full
to access all content.