- Mediation — Good offices — Due process — Transitional justice — Prisoners of war — Security assistance — Sustainable development
Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law under the direction of Rüdiger Wolfrum.
1 Inaccessible peripheral location, rugged terrain, and relative lack of natural resources have considerably encumbered State-building in Afghanistan. For most of its modern history since 1747 it has thus been defined primarily as a ‘buffer State’ separating the Russian and British empires. In the 19 th and 20 th centuries the exceedingly weak central State repeatedly attempted ambitious modernization efforts that faltered on its insufficient institutional strength and the massive resistance of an extremely conservative rural population. Competing outside powers...