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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

Bays and Gulfs

Andrea Gioia

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 23 February 2024

Sovereignty — Bays — Baselines

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 Whereas the normal baseline (Baselines) for measuring the breadth of a coastal State’s territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast, in certain cases international law allows for departures from that normal baseline by drawing straight lines linking the outermost base points; one such case is that of coastal indentations. Whereas the terms ‘bays’ and ‘gulfs’ are used interchangeably in the language of geography, the existing international conventions refer to ‘bays’, and contain a legal definition of a bay which is applicable to all coastal...
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