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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

State Responsibility

James Crawford†

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 25 April 2024

Diplomatic protection — Sovereignty — Customary international law — Reparations — Circumstances precluding wrongfulness — Responsibility of states — Peremptory norms / ius cogens

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 State responsibility is a cardinal institution of international law. It results from the general legal personality of every State under international law, and from the fact that States are the principal bearers of international obligations (see also States, Fundamental Rights and Duties). Moreover just as the law of State treaties is applied by analogy to the treaties of other international persons (see also Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties [1969] [‘VCLT’]), so State responsibility provides the frame of reference for considering other forms of...
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