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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]


Federica I Paddeu

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 25 April 2024

Circumstances precluding wrongfulness — Reparations — Reprisals

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1Countermeasures are unilateral measures adopted by a State (the ‘injured State’) in response to the breach of its rights by the wrongful act of another State (the ‘wrongdoing’ or ‘target’ State) that affect the rights of the target State and are aimed at inducing it to provide cessation or reparations to the injured State. 2Countermeasures are an old institution of international law, though the term ‘countermeasure’ is itself of relatively recent adoption. There is evidence that the term had been employed in this sense since the early 20th century, but it did not...
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