In the autumn of 1957 when the USSR’s Sputnik 1 spacecraft orbited the earth, man took his first steps in the exploration and use of outer space. In the just over half a century that has since elapsed manned missions into outer space, or ‘space’ for short (the two terms are used interchangeably in this chapter), the manned landing on the surface of the moon, the huge development in space-related technologies, and the increasing dependency of many core facilities on space capabilities have become realities. Space is now critical to both civilian commercial1 and...
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