1. The protection of cultural property in armed conflict, by which is meant its protection from damage and destruction and from all forms of misappropriation, has been a matter of legal concern since the rise of modern international law in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. When the laws of war were codified over the second half of the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth centuries, cultural property was treated for certain purposes as a species of enemy property generally, so that it was protected by the classical rule as to military necessity...
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