1. Historical development of the rules on warfare and weapons. The concern to protect the civilian population, as well as combatants, against excessive and exceptionally cruel violence might have been the beginning of all moral and philosophical attempts to mitigate the horrors of war (Sections 107–123). The ancient civilizations experienced—as did the cultures of the Far East, India, and Islam1—religiously motivated efforts to set bounds to the spread of belligerent violence (supra, Section 107). These attempts to control war, however, succeeded only to a limited...
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