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2 Heads of State

From: The Position of Heads of State and Senior Officials in International Law

Joanne Foakes

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 01 December 2023

Armed conflict — Treaties, interpretation — Object & purpose (treaty interpretation and) — Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties — Diplomatic immunity — Heads of state and other senior officials — Immunity from jurisdiction — Immunity from jurisdiction, waiver — Act of state doctrine — Federal states — Recognition of governments — Recognition of states — Sovereignty
It is a matter for each State to decide for itself its constitutional structure, including the type and title of the head of State it will have and the particular powers and functions to be assigned to that head of State.1 In practice there has been and continues to be a wide variation between States both as to title and substance although it has been said that a very broad distinction can be drawn between monarchies on the one hand, usually headed by a king or queen, and republics on the other, usually led by a president.2 In the case of monarchies, the titles of...
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