Since antiquity, public international law has dealt to some extent—at least secondarily—with rights and duties of individuals. Institutions such as postliminium or the suppression of piracy iure gentium bear testimony to this ancient lineage. In classical authors such as Grotius, we still find many passages, reminiscent of the medieval and scholastic world, where the status of individuals is at stake.1 During the 17th–19th centuries, the question of torts committed against subjects of a foreign king and the ensuing remedy of the letters of reprisal were much...
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