International law has sought since the nineteenth century to regulate the conduct of occupying forces. Rules were prescribed through military manuals, multilateral instruments, state practice, and judicial decisions. These rules stemmed from the developing norm within Europe that sovereignty may not be alienated through the use of force. The occupying power is thus precluded from annexing the occupied territory or otherwise unilaterally changing its political status and is bound to respect and maintain the political and other institutions that exist in that...
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