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Part VI Actors and Institutions, Ch.33 Non-Governmental Organizations and Civil Society

Peter J. Spiro

From: The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law (1st Edition)

Edited By: Daniel Bodansky, Jutta Brunnée, Ellen Hey

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From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 25 March 2023

NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) — Sustainable development — Marine environment, protection
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have enjoyed a meteoric rise on the world stage over the past decade. The Cold War and the Westphalian system at its zenith marginalized NGOs insofar as they merited any form of attention through a state-centred lens. Globalization, by contrast, has centred them as key international actors, and the emergence of NGOs comprises a central feature of the new structure of international decision-making. In a mere 15 years, NGOs have moved from being an actor not widely recognized among academics, policymakers, or the public, to one...
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