The massive terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001 (hereafter 9/11) led to a fundamental reappraisal of the law on self-defence.1 The US response was to announce ‘a different kind of war against a different kind of enemy’, a global war on terrorism. But it is open to question how far any change in the law on the use of force has resulted from the terrorist attacks and their aftermath. Responsibility for 9/11 was quickly attributed to the Al Qaida terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden which had been responsible...
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