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3 Invitation and intervention: civil wars and the use of force

From: International Law and the Use of Force (3rd Edition)

Christine Gray

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From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 20 April 2024

Use of force, threat — Humanitarian intervention — Armed conflict — Armed forces
It is notorious that Article 2(4), drafted in response to the Second World War, was addressed to inter-state conflicts. It says, ‘all Member States shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force’. Internal conflicts were seen as a domestic matter except in so far as they might constitute a threat to international peace and security under Chapter VII of the UN Charter.1 But in fact large scale inter-state conflicts have been exceptional since 1945; most inter-state conflicts have been limited to border actions. More common have been...
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