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Part A Major Problems of International Criminal Justice, II Fundamentals of International Criminal Law, Modes of International Criminal Liability

Bert Swart

From: The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice

Edited By: Antonio Cassese (Editor-in-Chief)

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 21 March 2023

While ordinary crimes can either be committed by persons acting alone or jointly with others, this cannot be said for the four types of crimes under customary international law: crimes against peace (see aggression), war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity. As far as crimes against peace, genocide and crimes against humanity are concerned, their commission presupposes the activity of many individuals. The same is not necessarily true for war crimes. However, the involvement of more than one person in the commission of a war crime may well be the rule...
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