- Sustainable development — Intellectual property — Biodiversity
This chapter focuses on the role of intellectual property law and intellectual property rights (IPRs) in international environmental law. IPRs such as patents are also closely associated with biotechnology developments, and so are highly relevant to efforts to preserve biological diversity, ensure food security, and implement sustainable development goals (SDGs). Issues relating to IPRs arise in three broad areas of international environmental law: whether IPRs should be granted for potentially environmentally damaging technologies; the extent to which IPRs protect Indigenous environmental knowledge; and the extent to which IPRs may limit the transfer of environmentally sound technology. The chapter then provides an overview of IPRs under the 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) and the 2001 International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGFA). It also considers the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); the 2010 Nagoya Protocol; the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); and the 2015 Paris Agreement.
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